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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: keg-, keng-, and kek-, kenk-   'peg, handle, (grappling) hook'

Semantic Fields: Nail, Peg; Hook, Crook


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: ail-cheng n rack for hanging weapons RPN
Old English: haca n.masc hook ASD
  haccian vb to hack IEW
  hacod n.masc pike ASD
  hōc n.masc hook W7/ASD
Middle English: hakell, heckele n hackle W7
  hakken vb to hack W7
  hekelen vb to heckle W7
  hook n hook W7
English: hacek n caron: diacritic resembling inverted circumflex AHD
  hack vb to cut with repeated unskillful/irregular blows AHD/W7
  hackle n comb/board with teeth for dressing flax/jute/hemp W7
  hake n marine fish resembling cod AHD
  hakenkreuz n swastika used as symbol of Nazi Germany AHD/W7
  harquebus n obsolete portable firearm AHD/W7
  hatchel n hackle IEW
  heckle vb.trans to badger, harass/disconcert with gibes/questions/challenges AHD/W7
  hook n bent/curved implement for catching/holding/pulling AHD/W7
  hooker n one-masted fishing boat AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hakkia vb to hack ASD
Middle Dutch: hoec n fishhook; corner W7
  hoecboot n hooker W7
Dutch: hakken vb to hack, hew, chop ASD
  hoek n angle, corner TLL
  hoeker n hooker W7
  kaak n jaw TLL
Middle Low German: hacken vb to hack IEW
Old High German: hacchōn vb to hack W7
  hāko n hook W7
  hank n handle RPN
  hechit n pike LRC
Middle High German: hacken vb to hack IEW
  hechel n hackle IEW
German: hacken vb to hack, chop ASD
  Haken n.masc hook W7
  Hakenkreuz n.neut swastika W7
  Hechel n.fem hackle, flax-comb LRC
  Hecht n pike TLL
Icelandic: haki n hook ASD
Danish: hage n hook ASD
  hakke vb to hack, hoe ASD
Swedish: haka n chin TLL
  hake n hook ASD
Middle French: harquebuse, arquebuse n.fem harquebus W7
Lithuanian: kengė n.fem hook, clasp, latch RPN/LD
Czech: hák n hook AHD
  háček n.dim hacek, lit. small hook AHD
Farsi: čang n claw, fist RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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