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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑ei-   'to lie, recline; camp, home'

Semantic Fields: to Lie, Recline; Home


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: céle n.masc friend, fellow, companion AHD/IOI
  célide n ceilidh, visit AHD
Irish: céilidhe n ceilidh AHD
Welsh: cilydd n comrade, companion IEW
Old English: hām n.masc/adv home, village; homeward(s) W7/ASD
  hīgid n hide, archaic English land unit W7
  hīwan/hīgan members of household W7/ASD
  hīwian vb to marry KEW
Middle English: cimitery n cemetery W7
  citie n large/small town W7
  civil adj civil W7
  hamlet n hamlet W7
  haunten vb to haunt W7
  hide n hide (areal unit) W7
  hine n servant, farmhand W7
  hom n home W7
English: ceilidh n social gathering with Celtic dance/music/storytelling AHD
  cemetery n burial ground AHD/W7
  city n inhabited area greater in size/importance/population than town/village AHD/W7
  civic adj re: city/citizen(ship)/civil affairs AHD/W7
  civil adj re: citizens AHD/W7
  haimish adj warm, homey, folksy, comfortable AHD
  Hamfast prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hamlet n small village AHD/W7
  Hamson prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hangar n shed, shelter, covered area AHD
  haunt vb to frequent, visit often AHD/W7
  hide n old English areal unit (usu. 120 acres) AHD/W7
  hind n British farmhand AHD/W7
  home n domicile, family's residence AHD/W7
  homey adj cosy, homelike, intimate W7
  incunabulum n book printed before 1501 AHD/W7
  Niflheim prop.n primordial realm of cold and darkness, lit. Mist Home (Norse mythology) LRC
  site n place, position, (occupied) location W7
  situate adj re: location, having a site AHD/W7
  situate vb to place, locate W7
  situs n site AHD
Dutch: huwelijk n marriage TLL
  huwen vb to marry LRC
Old Saxon: hēm n home, dwelling place ASD
  hīwa n wife ASD
Old High German: haim n/adv home ASD
  hīwa n married woman ASD
  hīwo n married man ASD
German: Heim n.neut home ASD
Old Norse: heimr n.masc home, region, world LRC
  Niflheimr prop.n.masc Niflheim W7
Icelandic: heim adv home ASD
  heimr n abode, world ASD
  hjū(n)/hjōn n family, household, man and wife ASD
Gothic: haims n.fem home, village ASD
  heiwa-frauja n.masc head of household KGW
Latin: civicus adj civic W7
  civilis adj civil W7
  civis n.masc citizen W7
  civitas, civitatis n.fem citizenship, state, city of Rome LRC
  cuna n.fem cradle W7
  incunabula n.fem swaddling clothes, cradle W7
  situs n.masc situs W7
Late Latin: coemeterium n.neut burial place W7
Medieval Latin: situō, situāre, situāvī, situātus vb to situate W7
New Latin: incunabulum n.neut book printed before 1501 W7
Spanish: ciudád n city TLL
Old French: cité n.fem capital city W7
  hanter vb to haunt W7
Middle French: cimitere n.masc cemetery W7
  civil adj of a citizen W7
  hamelet n.masc.dim hamlet W7
Italian: città n city TLL
Latvian: saime n.fem family LRC
Greek: κει̃μαι vb to lie, recline, be placed LRC
  koiman vb to put to sleep W7
  koimētērion n.neut sleeping chamber, burial place W7
  κοίτη n.fem the marriage-bed RPN
  κοι̃τος n.masc the marriage-bed RPN
  kōmē n.fem village W7
Hittite: ki-it-ta(-ri) to lie, be placed RPN
Palaic: ki-i-ta-ar to lie, be placed RPN
Avestan: saēte vb to lie down, recline RPN
Sanskrit: śāyayati vb.caus to lay, cause to lie down RPN
  śéte vb to lie (down) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
mid=middle (voice)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
IOI=Ruth P.M. and Winfred P. Lehmann: An Introduction to Old Irish (1975)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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