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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kel-, kelə-   'to project, tower up; hill'

Semantic Field: Hill, Mountain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: holm n.masc holm, hill, mount; sea, wave W7/ASD
  hyll n.masc/fem hill RPN/ASD
Middle English: columne n column W7
  excellen vb to excel W7
  hill n hill W7
  holm n holm W7
English: colonel n commissioned officer ranking between lieutenant colonel/brigadier general AHD/W7
  colonnade n columns at regular intervals, usu. supporting roof AHD/W7
  colonnette n small (usu. decorative) column AHD
  colophon n inscription at end of book/manuscript AHD/W7
  column n supporting pillar AHD/W7
  coronel n colonel AHD/W7
  culminate vb to reach highest altitude AHD/W7
  excel vb to outdo, surpass AHD/W7
  Hill prop.n Bombadil's home in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hill n natural land elevation (lower than mountain) AHD/W7
  holm n small inland/inshore island AHD/W7
  Overhill prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Underhill prop.n Hobbiton family in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Frisian: hel n hill RPN
Middle Dutch: hul/hil(le) n hill RPN
Low German: hul n hill RPN
Old Norse: hōlmr n holm W7
Crimean Gothic: *al/ael n rock, stone CGo
Latin: -cellere afx to rise, project W7
  collis n.masc hill RPN
  colophon n.masc summit, finishing touch W7
  columen n.neut top W7
  columna n.fem column, pillar W7
  culmen, culminis n.neut top W7
  culmino, culminare, culminavi, culminatus vb to crown W7
  excello, excellere vb to excel, rise out W7
Middle French: colomne n.fem column W7
  coronel n.masc leader of column of soldiers W7
French: colonnade n.fem colonnade W7
Old Italian: colonna n.fem column, pillar W7
  colonnello n.masc colonel, column of soldiers W7
Italian: colonnato n.masc colonnade W7
Lithuanian: kálnas n hill, mound RPN
  keliù, kélti vb to lift, raise RPN
  kìlti, kỹla, kìlo vb to arise LRC
Greek: kolophōn n.masc summit, finishing touch W7
  κολωνός n.masc heap LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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