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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. kel-, kelə-, klā-, extended klād-   'to hit, hew, cut down'

Semantic Fields: to Hit, Strike, Beat; to Hew; to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: cleddyf n sword W7
Old English: cler(i)c/clerec n.masc clerk/cleric W7/ASD
  healt adj halt W7
  hild n.str.fem war, battle LRC
  hilde-dēor adj lit. battle-bold LRC
  holt n.masc/neut holt ASD
  lemp-healt adj limping, halting, limphalt AHD
Middle English: clerk n clerk W7
  copen vb to cope W7
  coupen vb to coup W7
  glaive n glaive W7
  halt adj halt W7
  hilt n hilt, sword or dagger handle W7
  holt n holt W7
  lympen vb to fall short W7
English: calamity n deep distress/misery caused by loss/misfortune AHD/W7
  clade n organisms sharing features derived from common ancestor AHD
  cladoceran n water flea, other small freshwater crustacean AHD
  cladode n cladophyll AHD/W7
  cladogenesis n evolutionary change/diversification resulting from new taxa branching off AHD
  cladogram n treelike diagram with endpoints representing species AHD
  clast n rock grain/fragment resulting from larger rock breakage AHD
  clastic adj re: fragments of pre-existing rock AHD/W7
  claymore n large double-edged broadsword AHD
  clematis n vine/herb AHD/W7
  cleric n clergy member (below priest) W7
  clerical adj re: clerk/clergy W7
  clerk n cleric AHD/W7
  clone n asexually produced progeny AHD/W7
  coloboma n eye anomaly: some loss of vision AHD
  colobus n African monkey of genus Colobus AHD
  cope vb to fight, strike AHD/W7
  coup n sudden, brilliant, usu. successful stroke AHD/W7
  coup vb to strike, upset, overturn AHD/W7
  Dimholt prop.n black grove in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gladiate adj sword-shaped AHD
  gladiator n person engaged in fight, for public entertainment AHD/W7
  gladiolus n African plant in iris family AHD/W7
  glaive n sword AHD/W7
  halt adj lame W7
  Hild prop.n Helm's sister in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hilt n handle of sword/dagger AHD/W7
  holt n copse, grove, small woods AHD/W7
  limphalt adj lame, halt AHD
  matilda n bedroll, bundle of possessions AHD
  osteoclast n large multinucleate cell in growing bone AHD/W7
  phylloclade n flattened stem/branch functioning as leaf AHD/W7
  plagioclase n triclinic feldspar AHD/W7
Old Frisian: halt adj halt ASD
  holt n holt, wood, stick ASD
Dutch: hout n holt, wood TLL
Old Saxon: halt adj halt ASD
  hild n war, battle ASD
Old High German: halz adj halt ASD
  hilt n war, battle ASD
  holz n holt; wood W7
German: Holz n.neut holt; wood, lumber LRC
  hölzern adj wooden TLL
Old Norse: haltr adj halt LRC
  Hildr prop.n.fem a Valkyrie LRC
  holt n holt KNW
Icelandic: haltr adj halt ASD
  hildr n war, battle ASD
  holt n holt, wood, coppice; rough stony hill ASD
Gothic: halts adj halt ASD
Latin: calamitas, calamitatis n.fem plea, destruction, calamity W7
  clades n.fem destruction W7
  clematis n.fem clematis, brushwood W7
  colaphus n.masc slap on the cheek W7
  gladiator n.masc gladiator, swordsman W7
  gladiolus n.masc small sword W7
  gladius n.masc glaive W7
  incolumis, incolumis, incolume adj unharmed LRC
  lābor, lābi, lāpsus vb.dep to slip, slide W7
  limbus n.masc border W7
Late Latin: clericus adj clerical, re: clergy W7
New Latin: cladodium n.neut twig W7
  gladiolus n.masc a flower W7
  phyllocladium n.neut phylloclade W7
Old French: clerc n.masc clerk, priest W7
  couper vb to strike, cut W7
Middle French: calamité n.fem plea, calamity W7
  couper vb to strike, cut W7
  glaive n.masc glaive, javelin W7
French: coup n.masc coup, blow W7
Latvian: pakula n.fem coarse linen LRC
Greek: klados n.masc sprout, branch, twig W7
  klan vb to break W7
  klastos adj broken W7
  klēma, klēmatos n.neut twig W7
  klēmatis n.fem clematis, brushwood W7
  κληρονομέω vb to inherit LRC
  klēros n.masc lot, inheritance, what is gained randomly W7
  klōn n.masc twig, slip W7
  kolaphos n.masc slap on the cheek W7
  plagios adj oblique, sideways W7
Late Greek: klērikos adj clerical, re: clergy W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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