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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 6. kel-, k(e)lē-, k(e)lā-, or kl̥̄-?   'to call, cry'

Semantic Field: to Call, Summon


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: geholian vb to obtain W7
  hlimman, hlamm, hlumon, hlummen vb.str.III to roar, resound LRC
  hlōwan vb.str to low W7/ASD
Middle English: calender n calendar W7
  claimen vb to claim W7
  clamor n clamor W7
  clere adj clear W7
  counceil n council W7
  declamen vb to declaim W7
  declaren vb to declare W7
  gleyre n egg white W7
  halen vb to hale W7
  halier n halyard W7
  kalendes calends W7
  loowen vb to low W7
  Paraclit prop.n Paraclete, Holy Spirit W7
  proclamen vb to proclaim W7
  reclamen vb to reclaim W7
  reconcilen vb to reconcile W7
English: acclaim vb to praise, applaud AHD/W7
  calendar n system for fixing/arranging days/weeks/months of civil year AHD/W7
  calends n beginning of ancient Roman month, with days counted backward to ides AHD/W7
  claim n demand for something due W7
  claim vb.trans to ask for (as right) AHD/W7
  clamant adj blatant, clamorous AHD/W7
  clamor n noisy shouting AHD/W7
  class n group sharing same social/economic status AHD/W7
  clear adj bright, luminous AHD/W7
  conciliate vb.trans to gain (e.g. goodwill) by pleasing AHD/W7
  council n meeting/assembly for advice/discussion/consultation AHD/W7
  declaim vb to speak rhetorically AHD/W7
  declare vb to make clear AHD/W7
  ecclesia n church AHD
  eclair n oblong cream puff with custard/whipped cream filling AHD/W7
  exclaim vb to speak/cry out in strong/sudden emotion AHD/W7
  glair n (size made from) egg white AHD/W7
  hale vb.trans to haul AHD/W7
  halyard n rope/tackle for hoisting/lowering AHD/W7
  haul vb to pull/draw with force/violence AHD/W7/OED
  intercalate vb.trans to insert (e.g. day) in calendar AHD/W7
  keelhaul vb.trans to haul under ship's keel as torture/punishment AHD/W7
  low vb.intrans to moo AHD/W7
  nomenclator n book containing lists/collections of words AHD/W7
  Paraclete prop.n helper, supporter AHD/W7
  proclaim vb.trans to announce, declare publicly via speech/writing AHD/W7
  quitclaim n transfer of claim/right/title AHD
  reclaim vb.trans to reform, recall from wrong/improper conduct AHD/W7
  reconcile vb.trans to restore to harmony/friendship/communion AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: halen vb to haul W7
Dutch: halen vb to haul W7
  kielhalen vb to keelhaul W7
Old High German: halōn vb to call, fetch RPN
  hloen vb to low W7
  hlōon vb to low ASD
Middle High German: hëllen vb to resound RPN
German: hallen vb to resound LRC
  Kielholen vb to keelhaul LRC
Old Norse: hjaldr n.masc battle LRC
Old Icelandic: hjala vb to talk, chatter RPN
Icelandic: hlōa vb to roar ASD
Latin: acclamo, acclamāre vb to acclaim W7
  calendae calends W7
  calo, calare, calavi, calatus vb to call, summon RPN
  clāmo, clāmare vb to call, shout, cry out RPN
  clamor, clamoris n.masc shout, loud noise LRC
  claro, clarare vb to make clear W7
  clarus adj clear, famous W7
  classis n.fem group called to arms, fleet W7
  concilio, conciliare, conciliavi, conciliatus vb to unite, assemble, conciliate W7
  concilium n.neut assembly, council W7
  dēclāro, dēclārare vb to declare, make clear W7
  exclamo, exclamare vb to exclaim W7
  intercalo, intercalare, intercalavi, intercalatus vb to intercalate W7
  kalendae calends, a day in the Roman calendar W7
  kalendarium n.neut moneylender's account book W7
  nomenclator n.masc caller W7
  proclamo, proclamare vb to proclaim W7
  reclamo, reclamare vb to cry out against W7
  reconcilio, reconciliare vb to repair, reconcile W7
Vulgar Latin: claria n.fem glair W7
Late Latin: ecclesia n church W7
  Paracletus n.masc Paraclete W7
Medieval Latin: kalendarium n.neut calendar W7
Portuguese: claro adj clear TLL
Spanish: claro adj clear TLL
Old French: clamer vb to claim W7
  cler adj clear W7
  concile n.masc council W7
  reclamer vb to call back, to claim back W7
Anglo-French: calender n.masc calendar W7
Middle French: clamour n.fem loud noise W7
  declarer vb to declare W7
  exclamer vb to exclaim W7
  glaire n.fem egg white W7
  haler vb to haul, pull W7
  Paraclet n.masc Paraclete W7
  proclamer vb to proclaim W7
  réconcilier vb to reconcile W7
French: clair adj clear TLL
  classe n.fem class W7
  éclair n.masc lightning W7
Italian: chiaro adj clear TLL
Lithuanian: kalbà n language RPN
Latvian: kal’uôt vb to chatter RPN
Greek: ἀνακαλέω vb to designate LRC
  ekklēsia n assembly of citizens W7
  ἐπίκλησις n.fem name, title LRC
  καλέω vb to call, summon LRC
  κέλαδος n noise RPN
  κολέω vb to call, to summon RPN
  parakalein vb to comfort W7
  Paraklētos n.masc Paraclete W7
Late Greek: ekklēsia n church W7
Hittite: kalgalinai- vb to clang, clash RPN
  kalleš-, kalliš- vb to evoke, summon RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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