Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our
own English gloss; our Semantic Field
Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical
Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.
All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.
Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.
Pokorny Etymon: 2. k̑el- 'to bow, lean, incline'
Semantic Field: to Obey
|Old English:||hold||adj||true, loyal, faithful, favorable||ASD|
|English:||Holdwine||prop.n||epithet for Merry in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings||LRC|
|Old Frisian:||hold||adj||kind, friendly, gracious, favorable||ASD|
|Old Saxon:||hold||adj||kind, friendly, gracious, favorable||ASD|
|Old High German:||hold||adj||kind, friendly, gracious, favorable||ASD|
|German:||hold||adj||kind, friendly, gracious, favorable||ASD|
|Icelandic:||hollr||adj||faithful, gracious, wholesome||ASD|
Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:
Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):
|ASD||=||Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)|
|LRC||=||Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin|