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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. k̑el-   'to hide, conceal'

Semantic Field: to Hide, Conceal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: celim vb to hide, conceal GED
  cuile n cellar GED
  cul n protection GED
  fuil n.fem blood W7/IED
Old English: be-hyllan vb.wk to veil, cover GED
  cell n religious house W7
  heall n.fem hall W7/ASD
  helan vb.str to hide, conceal GED
  helm n.str.masc helmet ASD
  helustr n.masc hiding place GED
  heolh n corner of land W7
  heolstor n.masc holster, cover, concealment LRC
  hulu n.fem hull, husk ASD
  medu-heall n.fem mead-hall LRC
Middle English: Apocalipse n Apocalypse AHD
  celer n cellar W7
  celerer n cellarer W7
  cell n cell W7
  colour n color W7
  concelen vb to conceal W7
  halle n hall W7
  hell n hell W7
  hole/hull n husk, hull AHD/W7
  silen vb to seel W7
English: Apocalypse prop.n N.T. book of Revelation W7
  apocalypse n revelation re: cosmic cataclysm AHD
  Calypso prop.n goddess who detained Odysseus 7 years in Homer: Odyssey LRC
  calyptra n archegonium of liverwort/moss AHD/W7
  cell n small religious house depending on convent/monastery AHD/W7
  cella n inner room/sanctuary of church/temple AHD
  cellar n basement AHD/W7
  cellarer n (monastery) official in charge of provisions AHD/W7
  cilium n eyelash AHD/W7
  clandestine adj surreptitious, held in/conducted with secrecy AHD/W7
  coleopteran adj re: insect of order Coleoptera AHD
  coleus n herb in mint family AHD/W7
  color n phenomenon of light/visual perception AHD/W7
  conceal vb.trans to hide, prevent disclosure/recognition of AHD/W7
  Dernhelm prop.n Eowyn's nom de guerre in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Elfhelm prop.n Rohan marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  eucalyptus n Australian evergreen tree in myrtle family AHD/W7
  Halfast prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hall n house/castle (of king/noble) AHD/W7
  haugh n low-lying meadow beside river AHD/W7
  hell n hades, nether world where dead exist AHD/W7
  Helm prop.n 9th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  helmet n covering/enclosing armor headpiece AHD/W7
  Helmingas prop.n Westfold men in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hold n cargo deck, lower interior part of ship AHD/W7
  holster n (leather) case for pistol AHD/W7
  housing n ornamental saddle cover AHD/W7
  hull n outer covering of fruit/seed AHD/W7
  occult adj secret, not revealed AHD/W7
  occult vb to shade, conceal, hide from sight AHD/W7
  rathskeller n restaurant patterned after German Ratskeller AHD/W7
  saltcellar n small dish for holding/dispensing salt AHD
  seel vb.trans to close eyes (of hawk) via thread through eyelids AHD/W7
  supercilious adj haughtily contemptuous AHD/W7
  Valhalla prop.n Odin's home for war hero souls, lit. Hero Hall (Norse mythology) LRC
  Wellinghall prop.n Ent dwelling behind waterfall in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Woodhall prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
British English: colour n color LRC
Scots English: holch n haugh W7
  hule n hull, husk ASD
Old Frisian: hela vb.str to hide, conceal GED
  hella vb.wk to veil, cover GED
  helm n.str.masc helmet GED
Dutch: holster n holster GED
  kelder n cellar TLL
Old Saxon: bi-hullean vb.wk to veil, cover GED
  halla n hall ASD
  helan vb.str to hide, conceal GED
  helm n.str.masc helmet GED
Middle Low German: hulse n.fem hull GED
Low German: holstr n.fem case, holster GED
Old High German: hala n hull W7
  halla n hall ASD
  helan vb.str to hide, conceal GED
  helm n.str.masc helmet GED
  hulla n.fem hull, veil, cover GED
  hullan vb.wk to veil, cover GED
  hulsa n.fem hull GED
Middle High German: hǣli n.str.fem concealment GED
  hulfter n quiver GED
  hulst n.fem case, holster GED
German: Halle n hall ASD
  hehlen vb to hide, conceal ASD
  Helm n helmet ASD
  Holster n.neut holster, quiver LRC
  Hülle n.fem sleeve, cover, casing, wrapping LRC
  Hülse n hull, husk ASD
  Keller n.masc cellar W7
  Ratskeller n.masc rathskeller, city-hall basement restaurant W7
  Walhalla/Valhalla prop.n Valhalla W7
Old Norse: hjálmr n.masc helmet LRC
  hǫll n.fem hall LRC
  Valhöll/Valhalla prop.n Valhalla W7
Old Icelandic: hjalmr n.masc helmet GED
  hulda n.fem hull, veil, cover GED
  hylja vb.wk to veil, cover GED
  hæli n hiding place GED
Icelandic: hjālm n.fem helm, rudder ASD
  hjālmr n helmet ASD
  holstr n.masc sheath, case ASD
  höll n hall ASD
Danish: kælder n cellar TLL
Swedish: källare n cellar TLL
Gothic: *and-huleins n.fem revelation GED
  and-huljan vb.wk to reveal GED
  *hilms n.masc helmet GED
  hulistr n.neut veil GED
  huljan vb.wk.I to veil, cover GED
  hulundi n.fem cave GED
Latin: cella n.fem small room W7
  cellarium n.neut storeroom W7
  cēlo, cēlare vb to hide, conceal, keep secret W7
  -cilium sfx to hide W7
  cilium n.neut eyelid W7
  clam adv secretly GED
  clandestinus adj in secret W7
  color, colōris n.masc hue, tint, color ELD
  concelo, concelare vb to hide, conceal W7
  occulo, occulere, occului, occultus vb to conceal, cover up W7
  occulto, occultāre vb to occult W7
  superciliosus adj supercilious W7
  supercilium n.neut eyebrow W7
Late Latin: Apocalypsis prop.n Apocalypse AHD
  cellariarius n.masc cellarer W7
Medieval Latin: cilio, ciliare vb to seel, close one's eyelids W7
New Latin: calyptra n.fem archegonium of moss/liverwort W7
  coleus n.masc sheath W7
  eucalyptus n.masc eucalyptus W7
Portuguese: côr n color TLL
Spanish: color n color TLL
Old French: celerer n.masc monastery official in charge of provisions W7
  celle n.fem hermit's cell W7
  colour n.fem color W7
Anglo-French: celer n.masc storeroom W7
Middle French: clandestin adj.fem clandestine W7
  conceler vb to conceal W7
  siller vb to blink W7
French: couleur n color TLL
Italian: colore n color TLL
Old Prussian: kelmis n hat GED
Lithuanian: šálmas n helmet GED
Homeric Greek: καλύπτρη n.fem veil LRC
  καλύπτω vb to veil, hide, cover, conceal LRC
  Καλυψώ prop.n.fem Calypso, lit. concealer LRC
  κο(υ)λεόν n.neut sheath, scabbard LRC
Greek: apokaluptein vb to reveal, uncover AHD
  apokalupsis n apocalypse, revelation AHD
  kalyptos adj covered W7
  καλύπτω vb to hide, conceal GED
  κέλῡφος n covering GED
  koleos n.masc sheath, scabbard W7
Sanskrit: śaraṇás vb.ptc protecting GED
  śárma n shelter, protection GED
  śālā n room, building GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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