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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ken-, kenə-, keni-, kenu-   'to rub, scrape, scratch off; ashes'

Semantic Fields: to Rub; Ash(es)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: nippen vb to nip IEW
  nodden vb to nod IEW
English: cinerarium n place to receive ashes of cremated dead AHD/W7
  cinereous adj gray tinged with black AHD/W7
  conidium n asexual spore produced on conidiophore AHD/W7
  incinerate vb.trans to burn to ashes AHD/W7
  nip vb to pinch, squeeze; sip, taste IEW
  nod vb to doze, snooze, make quick downward head motion IEW
  pneumoconiosis n lung disease caused by inhalation of mineral/metallic particles AHD/W7
Old Norse: hnoss n.fem ornament, costly thing LRC
Latin: cinerarium adj.neut re: ashes W7
  cinereus adj made with ashes W7
  cinis, cineris n.masc ashes W7
Medieval Latin: incinero, incinerare, incineravi, incineratus vb to incinerate W7
New Latin: conidium n.neut dustlike spore W7
  pneumoconiosis n.fem lung disease W7
Latvian: kodīt, kodu, kodīju vb to bite repeatedly LRC
Greek: konis n.fem dust, ashes W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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