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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑enk-, k̑onk-   'to hang, sway, dangle'

Semantic Field: to Drop


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hangian vb.wk to hang W7/ASD
  hengan vb.wk to cause to hang GED
  hōn vb.str.trans to hang (something) GED
  hongian vb.wk to hang GED
Middle English: hangen vb to hang W7
  heng n hinge W7
  hon vb.trans to hang (something) W7
English: hang, hung vb.str/wk to suspend, fasten to elevated point without lower support AHD/W7
  hanker vb.intrans to desire strongly/persistently AHD/W7
  hinge n jointed/flexible device on which door/lid/swinging part turns AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hangia vb.wk to hang GED
  hūa vb.str to cause to hang GED
Middle Dutch: henge n hook W7
  vor-hanc n curtain GED
Flemish: hangen vb to hang W7
  hankeren vb.freq to hang W7
Old Saxon: bi-hangan vb.past.ptc caused to hang GED
  hangōn vb.wk to hang GED
Old High German: hāhan vb.str.trans to hang (something) GED
  hangēn vb.wk.intrans to hang GED
  hengen vb.wk to cause to hang GED
Middle High German: vür-hanc n.str.masc curtain GED
German: hängen vb to hang, dangle LRC
  Vorhang n.masc curtain LRC
Old Norse: háski n.masc harm, danger LRC
Old Icelandic: hanga vb.str to cause to hang GED
  hanga vb.wk to hang GED
  hengja vb.wk to cause to hang GED
  hætta n danger GED
  hætta vb to run a risk GED
Icelandic: hanga vb to hang ASD
Swedish: hänglsen braces TLL
Gothic: *at-hahan vb.str.VII to set down GED
  *hahan vb.str.VII to hang, keep in suspense GED
  *hahan vb.wk.III to cling to GED
Latin: cunctor, cunctāri, cunctātus vb.dep to hesitate LRC
  percūnctor, percunctārī, percunctātus vb.dep to inquire LRC
Hittite: gank- vb to hang GED
Sanskrit: śaṅkate vb to doubt GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
VII=class 7
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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