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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. k̑er-, k̑erə-, k̑rē-   'to grow, increase'

Semantic Field: to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: acreuen vb to accrue W7
  concrete adj concrete W7
  createn vb to create W7
  cressant n crescent W7
  crue n crew, lit. reinforcement W7
  decreessen vb to decrease W7
  encresen vb to increase W7
English: accrete vb to grow, adhere, become attached W7
  accretion n growth through gradual external addition AHD
  accrue vb to become legally enforceable claim AHD/W7
  cereal adj re: grain AHD/W7
  Ceres prop.n goddess of agriculture (Roman mythology) AHD/W7
  concrescence n increase by particle addition AHD/W7
  concrete adj re: coalition of particles into solid mass AHD/W7
  create vb.trans to bring into existence AHD/W7
  creature n something created AHD/W7
  Creole prop.n white person born in American colonies LRC
  crescendo n swelling volume of sound AHD/W7
  crescent adj increasing AHD/W7
  crescent n moon phase when illuminated less than half AHD/W7
  crew n band/force of armed men AHD/W7
  decrease vb to grow less AHD/W7
  Dioscuri prop.n twin brothers: Castor and Pollux (Greek mythology) AHD
  griot n bard, poet, musician AHD
  hypocorism n (use of) pet name AHD/W7
  increase vb to grow, become greater AHD/W7
  kore n (statue of) girl AHD
  kouros n (statue of) boy AHD
  procreate vb to propagate, produce (offspring) by generation AHD/W7
  recruit n fresh/additional supply AHD/W7
  sincere adj honest, not hypocritical, free of dissimulation AHD/W7
Old High German: hirsi n millet W7
German: Hirse n.fem millet LRC
  Rekrut n.masc recruit LRC
Latin: accresco, accrescere vb to accrete, increase W7
  cerealis adj of Ceres, re: grain W7
  Ceres prop.n.fem goddess of grain/harvest W7
  concrescentia n.fem action of growing W7
  concresco, concrescere, concrevi, concretus vb to grow together W7
  creō, creāre, creāvī, creātus vb to create W7
  cresco, crescere, crevi, cretus vb to grow W7
  decresco, decrescere vb to decrease W7
  incresco, increscere vb to grow W7
  procreo, procreare, procreavi, procreatus vb to create, procreate, engender W7
  recresco, recrescere vb to grow up again W7
  sincerus adj sincere W7
Portuguese: crioulo n.masc white person born in the colonies W7
Spanish: criollo adj Creole W7
Anglo-French: decreistre vb to decrease W7
Middle French: acreistre vb to increase W7
  acreue vb to accrue, increase W7
  creissant adj that grows W7
  creistre vb to grow, increase W7
  creue n.fem increase W7
  encreistre vb to grow W7
  recroistre vb to grow up again W7
  recrue n.fem fresh growth, new levy of soldiers W7
  sincere adj sincere W7
French: céréale n.fem grain, cereal W7
  créole n.masc Creole W7
  recrue n.fem new levy of soldiers, a new soldier W7
Italian: crescendo adj increasing W7
  crescere vb to grow W7
Homeric Greek: κόρη/κούρη n.fem daughter, young girl LRC
  κου̃ρος n.masc son, boy, youth LRC
Greek: Dioskouroi n.masc Dioscuri, lit. Zeus' sons W7
  korē n.fem girl W7
  korizesthai vb to caress W7
  hypokorizesthai vb to call by pet names W7
  hypokorisma n.neut affectionate name W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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