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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑erdho-, k̑erdhā   'line, row, herd'

Semantic Fields: Line; Crowd, Multitude


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Welsh: cordd n crowd GED
Old English: heord n.str.fem herd GED
  hi(e)rde/heorde/hyrde n.str.masc shepherd, herdsman GED/ASD
  scēaphyrde n.str.masc shepherd W7/GED
Middle English: herd n herd W7
  sheepherde n shepherd W7
English: herd n animals of one kind (together) AHD/W7
  herd vb to move/assemble in herd W7
  herdsman n livestock tender/breeder/manager W7
  shepherd n one who tends/guards sheep W7
  tree-herd n Ent description in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Low Franconian: herda n.str.fem herd GED
Old Saxon: hirdi n.str.masc shepherd GED
Old High German: herta n.str.fem herd GED
  hirti n.str.masc shepherd GED
German: Herde n.fem herd, flock LRC
  Hirte n shepherd ASD
Old Norse: hjǫrð n.str.fem herd, flock LRC
Old Icelandic: hirðir n.str.masc shepherd GED
Icelandic: hirðir n shepherd ASD
  hjörð n herd ASD
Gothic: hairda n.str.fem herd LRC
  hairdeis n.str.masc herdsman LRC
Old Prussian: kērdan n time GED
Lithuanian: (s)ker̃dzius n senior shepherd GED
Old Church Slavonic: črěda n herd, series, daily order GED
Greek: κόρθυς n.fem sheaf, heap (of wheat) GED
Avestan: sarəða- n type, kind GED
Sanskrit: śardha- n crowd; might GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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