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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑ered- : k̑erd-, k̑ērd-, k̑r̥d-, k̑red-   'heart'

Semantic Field: Heart


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cretim vb to believe LRC
  cride n heart RPN
Cornish: créz n middle RPN
Welsh: craidd n heart; center RPN
Old English: hēah-heort adj proud GED
  heorte n.wk.fem heart LRC
Middle English: accord n chord, accord W7
  accorden vb to accord W7
  concord n concord W7
  corage n courage W7
  cordial adj cordial W7
  credence n credence W7
  credible adj credible W7
  credo n credo W7
  discorden vb to discord W7
  granten vb to grant W7
  hert n heart W7
  miscreaunt n miscreant W7
  querre n the guts of the hunted game that the dogs ate W7
  recorden vb to record, lit. to recall W7
  recreant adj recreant W7
English: accord n agreement, conformity AHD/W7
  accord vb to reconcile, bring into agreement AHD/W7
  cardia n heart AHD/CDC
  cardiac adj re: heart AHD/W7
  cardi(o)- pfx heart AHD/W7
  cardiomegaly n abnormal heart enlargement AHD
  concord n harmony, state of agreement AHD/W7
  cordate adj heart-shaped AHD/W7
  cordial adj vital, re: heart AHD/W7
  cordiform adj heart-shaped AHD/W7
  courage n mental/moral strength to withstand fear/danger/difficulty AHD/W7
  credence n belief, mental acceptance AHD/W7
  credible adj capable of being believed AHD/W7
  credit n account balance in one's favor AHD/W7
  credit vb.trans to supply goods pending payment AHD/W7
  credo n creed, belief AHD/W7
  credulous adj ready/eager to believe AHD/W7
  creed n (brief statement of) religious belief LRC
  discord vb.intrans to clash, disagree AHD/W7
  endocardium n thin serous membrane lining heart cavities AHD/W7
  epicardium n visceral part of pericardium AHD/W7
  grant vb.trans to allow/bring about fulfillment of AHD/W7
  heart n hollow muscular organ that pumps blood in vertebrate animals AHD/W7
  megalocardia n cardiomegaly AHD
  miscreant adj heretical, unbelieving AHD/W7
  misericord n small projection on bottom of hinged church seat that helps support standing worshiper when seat is turned up AHD/W7
  myocardium n middle muscular layer of heart wall AHD/W7
  pericardium n conical serous membrane enclosing heart/roots of great blood vessels in vertebrates AHD/W7
  quarry n heap of game killed in hunt AHD/W7
  record vb to set down in writing AHD/W7
  recreant adj cowardly, crying for mercy AHD/W7
Old Frisian: herte/hirte n.wk heart RPN/GED/ASD
Dutch: hart n heart LRC
Old Saxon: herta n.wk heart RPN/GED
Old High German: herza n.wk heart RPN/GED
  hrein-herzi adj pure of heart GED
German: Herz n.neut heart ASD
Old Icelandic: hjarta n.wk heart RPN/GED
  hrein-hjartaðr adj pure of heart GED
Icelandic: hjarta n heart ASD
Danish: hjerte n heart LRC
Swedish: hjärta n heart LRC
Gothic: *arma-hairto adj merciful GED
  hairto n.wk.neut heart GED
  hauh-hairei n.fem pride GED
  hauh-hairts adj proud GED
  *hrainja-hairts adj pure in heart GED
Latin: cardiacus adj re: heart W7
  concordia n.fem peace, agreement W7
  concors, concordis adj agreeing W7
  cor, cordis n.neut heart LRC
  credibilis adj credible W7
  creditum n.neut loan, credit, something entrusted to another W7
  credo, credere, credidi, creditus vb to trust, entrust, believe W7
  credulus adj credulous W7
  discordo, discordāre vb to disagree W7
  discors, discordis adj discordant, disagreeing W7
  misercordia n.fem mercy W7
  misereor, misereri vb to be merciful W7
  misericors, misericordis adj merciful W7
  recordor, recordāri vb.dep to remember W7
Vulgar Latin: accordo, accordāre vb to give, allow W7
  credento, credentāre vb to believe W7
Medieval Latin: cordialis adj re: heart W7
  credentia n.fem belief W7
  misercordia n.fem seat in church W7
New Latin: cordatus adj heart-shaped W7
  endocardium n.neut membrane lining heart cavities W7
  epicardium n.neut part of heart W7
  myocardium n.neut heart wall's middle muscle layer W7
  pericardium n.neut conical sac enclosing heart W7
Portuguese: crer vb to believe TLL
Spanish: creer vb to believe TLL
Old French: acorder vb to give, allow, fit together W7
  acort n.masc accord, harmony W7
  concorde n.fem agreement, peace W7
  corage n.masc courage W7
  creanter vb to believe W7
  cuer n.masc heart W7
  discorder vb to discord W7
  granter vb to believe W7
  recorder vb to recall W7
Middle French: credence n.fem belief; small piece of furniture W7
  credit n.masc credit W7
  croire vb to believe W7
  cuiriee n.fem act of giving something to hounds to devour W7
  mescreant adj not trustworthy W7
  mescroire vb to disbelieve W7
  recreant adj renouncing one's cause W7
  recroire vb to renounce one's cause in a trial by battle W7
French: cordiforme adj cordiform W7
  croire vb to believe TLL
Old Italian: credenza n.fem Renaissance side board used for valuable plates W7
  credito n.masc credit W7
Italian: credere vb to believe TLL
Old Prussian: seyr n heart GED
Lithuanian: šerdìs n heart; marrow GED
  širdìs n heart GED
Latvian: ser̃de n heart; marrow GED
  sir̃ds n heart GED
Old Church Slavonic: srьdьce n heart GED
  srěda n midst, middle, center; Wednesday RPN
Greek: καρδία n.fem heart RPN
  kardiakos adj of the heart W7
  κη̃ρ n heart GED
  perikardios adj around the heart W7
Hittite: ki-ir, kar-ti-ya-aš n heart RPN
Palaic: ka-a-ar-ti n.dat/ heart RPN
Classical Armenian: sirt n heart LRC
Avestan: zərəd- n heart RPN
  zraz-dā- vb to believe LRC
Sanskrit: śrad-dhā́- n faith LRC
  hŕ̥d- n heart GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
loc=locative (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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