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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑es-   'to cut'

Semantic Field: to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: cess n spear RPN
Old English: castel(l) n castle, village W7/ASD
  hūdenian vb to shake W7
Middle English: castel n castle W7
  castelleyn n castellan W7
  chaste adj chaste W7
  incest n incest W7
  quashen vb to quash, smash W7
English: caret n mark (^) on written/printed matter indicating place to insert something AHD/W7
  cashier n person in charge of money AHD/W7
  cassation n reversal, annulment, abrogation, cancellation AHD/CDC
  caste n hereditary social/occupational class (Hinduism) AHD/W7
  castellan n warden/governor of fort/castle AHD/W7
  castellated adj having castle-like battlements AHD/W7
  castigate vb.trans to punish/reprove/criticize severely AHD/W7
  castle n large fortified building AHD/W7
  castrate vb.trans to geld, deprive of testes AHD/W7
  chaste adj re: lack of unlawful sexual intercourse AHD/W7
  chastise vb to scold TLL
  chateau n French manor/castle TLL
  incest n sexual intercourse between closely-related persons forbidden to marry AHD/W7
  quash vb.trans to quell, suppress/extinguish completely AHD/W7
Dutch: kassier/cashier n cashier W7
  kasteel n castle TLL
German: Kassierer n.masc cashier LRC
  Kaste n.fem caste LRC
Latin: careo, carēre vb to lack, be without W7
  castellanus adj/n.masc re: castle W7
  castellum n.neut castle, fortress W7
  castigo, castigāre, castigāvī, castigātus vb to castigate W7
  castrō, castrāre, castrāvī, castrātus vb to castrate RPN
  castrum n.neut fortified place W7
  castus adj pure, chaste W7
  incestum n.neut incest W7
  incestus adj impure W7
  quatio, quatere, quassi, quassus vb to shake W7
Medieval Latin: castello, castellare, castellavi, castellatus vb to fortify W7
Portuguese: casta n.fem race, lineage W7
  castigar vb to chastise TLL
  casto adj pure, chaste W7
Spanish: castigar vb to chastise, castigate TLL
  casto adj chaste TLL
Old French: chaste adj chaste W7
Old North French: castel n.masc castle W7
  castelain n.masc master of the castle W7
Middle French: casse n.fem ladle, dripping pan, money box W7
  cassier n.masc money-box W7
  quasser, casser vb to break, annul, smash W7
French: chaste adj chaste TLL
  château n chateau TLL
  châtier vb to chastise TLL
Italian: castigare vb to chastise, castigate TLL
Old Church Slavonic: kosa n scythe RPN
Russian: kosá n scythe RPN
Greek: κεάζω vb to split, cleave RPN
Sanskrit: śásati vb to cut down, kill, slaughter RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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