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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: klēg-, klōg-, kləg-, klang-, kleg-, klōg-, kleig-, kleik-   'to cry, shout, scream'

Semantic Field: to Call, Summon


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: clocc n bell W7
Old English: cloccian vb to cluck IEW
  hleahtor/hlehter n.masc laughter, jubilation ASD
  hliehhan/hilehhan vb to laugh W7
  hlōwan vb.str to low, moo W7/ASD
Middle English: clok n clock W7
  laughen vb to laugh W7
  laughter n laughter W7
English: clang vb to make loud metallic ringing sound AHD/W7
  claxon n loud electric horn LRC
  clock n time-keeping device LRC
  cluck vb to sound like hen W7
  laugh vb to show mirth/joy/scorn with chuckle/loud sound AHD/W7
  laughter n (sound of) laughing AHD/W7
Scots English: clock vb to cluck ASD
Middle Dutch: clocke n bell, clock W7
Old High German: hlahter n laughter ASD
  hlōon vb to low ASD
  lachēn vb to laugh W7
German: Glocke n bell, gong, clock LRC
  glucken vb to cluck ASD
  lachen vb to laugh LRC
Old Norse: hlæja vb to laugh LRC
Icelandic: hlātr n laughter ASD
  hlōa vb to roar ASD
  klókkva vb to cluck ASD
Danish: klukke vb to cluck ASD
Swedish: klocka n clock, watch TLL
  klokka/klukka vb to cluck ASD
Crimean Gothic: lachen vb to laugh CGo
Latin: clango, clangere vb to make noise W7
  glocire vb to cluck ASD
Middle Latin: clocca n bell W7
Old North French: cloque n bell W7
Greek: klazein vb to scream, bark W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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