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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑lei-   'to lean, incline, tip (over)'

Semantic Field: to Lie, Recline

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: hlǣder/hlæd(d)er/hlæddre n.fem ladder W7/ASD
  hlǣnan vb.wk.trans to lean (something) KEW/ASD
  hlǣne adj lean, meager KEW
  hlǣnian vb.wk to make/become lean ASD
  hlǣw/hlāw/hlāu/hlēw n.str.masc mound ASD
  hlid n.neut lid W7/ASD
  hlinian/hleonian vb.wk to lean W7/ASD
  hlið n.neut cliff, hill LRC
Middle English: client n client W7
  climat n climate W7
  declinen vb to decline W7
  inclinen vb to incline W7
  ladder n ladder W7
  lene adj lean W7
  lenen vb to lean W7
  lid n lid W7
  reclinen vb to recline W7
English: acclimate vb to adapt, become accustomed AHD
  acclivity n ascending slope AHD/W7
  anaclisis n psychological dependence on others AHD
  androclinium n a.k.a. clinandrium AHD
  client n vassal, dependent, person under protection AHD/W7
  climate n (region of earth having) specified long-term weather AHD/W7
  climax n arrangement of phrases/sentences by ascending rhetorical force AHD/W7
  -clinal adj.sfx sloping AHD/W7
  clinandrium n hollow containing anther in upper part of orchid column AHD
  cline n graded series of differences exhibited by group of related organisms AHD/W7
  -clinic adj.sfx dipping, inclining AHD/W7
  clinic n medical instruction with patients discussed/examined AHD/W7
  clisis n process of making/becoming a clitic AHD
  clitellum n epidermal region in worm where viscous fluid forms egg cocoon AHD
  clitoris n small organ in vulva homologous to penis AHD/W7
  decline vb to stray, turn from straight course AHD/W7
  declivity n downward inclination AHD/W7
  diclinous adj diclinic; unisexual: having only pistils or stamens AHD/CDC
  enclitic adj pronounced as part of preceding word AHD/W7
  incline vb to bow, bend head/body forward AHD/W7
  ladder n structure for climbing: 2 long sidepieces joined by crosswise steps AHD/W7
  lean, leant vb.wk to bend/incline/deviate from vertical AHD/W7
  lean adj with little/no fat, lacking/deficient in flesh W7
  lid n movable cover for opening of hollow structure (e.g. box) AHD/W7
  matriclinous adj having maternal hereditary traits AHD
  monoclinous adj having stamens/pistils in same flower AHD/W7
  pericline n albite occurring in elongated opaque white crystals AHD/W7
  proclitic adj pronounced as part of following word AHD/W7
  proclivity n inclination/predisposition toward something AHD/W7
  recline vb to incline backwards AHD/W7
  triclinium n 3-part couch for reclining at meals AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: hladder/hleder n ladder ASD
Dutch: leunen vb to lean LRC
  leuning n bannister LRC
Old Saxon: hlēwe n grave ASD
  hlinon vb to lean ASD
Old High German: hlē/lēo n mound, grave-hill, memorial KDW
  hlēo n mound ASD
  hlinēn vb to lean W7
  hlit n lid, cover W7
  hlīta n hill, slope ASD
  leinen vb to lean KDW
  leitara/hleitar n ladder W7/ASD
German: Lehne n.fem support, backrest LRC
  lehnen vb to lean, recline LRC
  Leite n hill, slope ASD
  Leiter n ladder ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: hlaiwa n grave KNW
  hlein n leaning-place (e.g. hill, rock) KNW
Icelandic: hlið n gate(way) ASD
  hlīð n slope, mountainside ASD
Danish: læne vb to lean LRC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: hlain(s) n hill KGW
  hlaiw n tomb, grave ASD
  hlaiwasna n grave, sepulcher ASD
  hleiduma adj/n.fem left; left hand/side LRC
  *hlija n.masc tent, tabernacle LRC
Italic  
Latin: acclivis adj ascending W7
  acclivitas n.fem ascent W7
  cliens, clientis n.masc client LRC
  clino, clināre vb to bend, incline W7
  clivus n.masc hill, slope W7
  declino, declināre vb to decline, inflect, turn aside W7
  declivis adj sloping down W7
  declivitas, declivitatis n.fem declivity W7
  inclino, inclināre vb to incline W7
  proclivis adj prone, sloping W7
  proclivitas n.fem proclivity W7
  reclino, reclinare vb to recline, lean back W7
  triclinium n.neut dining room W7
Late Latin: clima, climatis n.neut climate, latitude, inclination W7
  -cliticus sfx falling, bending towards W7
  encliticus adj enclitic W7
New Latin: -clinus sfx inclined, -clinous W7
  clitoris n.fem clitoris W7
  monoclinus adj monoclinous W7
  procliticus adj proclitic, inclined towards front W7
Middle French: client n.masc client; customer W7
  climat n.masc climate W7
  decliner vb to decay, decline W7
  incliner vb to incline W7
  recliner vb to recline W7
French: clinique n.fem medical office W7
Albanian  
Albanian: klimë n.fem climate LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: ἀνακλίνω vb to lay down LRC
  anaklisis n anaclisis, lit. leaning on/back AHD
  enklinesthai vb to lean on W7
  enklitikos adj leaning on W7
  kleitoris n.fem clitoris W7
  klima, klimatos n.neut climate, latitude, inclination W7
  klimax n.fem ladder W7
  klinein vb to bend W7
  klinē n.fem bed W7
  klinikē n.fem clinic, medical practice at sickbed W7
  klinikos adj re: bed W7
  periklinēs adj sloping on all sides W7
  triklinion adj dining room with three beds W7
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: leaṙn n mountain LRC
  linim vb to be, exist LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
sfx=suffix
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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