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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: klēu-, also klĕu-?, and klāu-   'hook, crook'

Semantic Field: Hook, Crook


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: clause n clause W7
  cloistre n cloister W7
  clos adj/n close W7
  closen vb to close W7
  closet n closet W7
  closure n closure W7
  clowe n clove W7
  conclave n conclave W7
  concluden vb to conclude W7
  excluden vb to exclude W7
  includen vb to include W7
  recluse n recluse W7
  secluden vb to seclude W7
English: clafouti(s) n French baked-fruit dessert AHD
  clathrate adj resembling a lattice AHD/W7
  clause n separate section of discourse/writing AHD/W7
  claustrophobia n abnormal fear of closed/narrow spaces W7
  clavate adj claviform, gradually thickening near distal end AHD/W7
  clavichord n early keyboard instrument AHD/W7
  clavicle n bone of vertebrate shoulder girdle linking scapula/sternum AHD/W7
  clavier n keyboard of musical instrument AHD/W7
  claviform adj club-shaped AHD/W7
  clef n sign at beginning of musical staff AHD/W7
  cleistogamous adj re: flower self-pollinated in bud AHD
  cleistothecium n closed spherical ascocarp AHD
  cloisonne n multicolored enamel/metal decoration AHD/W7
  cloister n monastic establishment AHD/W7
  close adj closed, having no openings AHD/W7
  close n enclosed area AHD/W7
  close vb to move to bar access/passage AHD/W7
  closet n apartment/small room for privacy AHD/W7
  closure n enclosure, means of enclosing AHD/W7
  clove n dried flower bud of tropical tree AHD/W7
  cloze adj re: reading test where subject supplies missing words AHD
  conclave n private/secret meeting/assembly AHD/W7
  conclude vb to enclose, shut up AHD/W7
  eclosion n hatching from egg, emerging from pupal case AHD/W7
  enclave n culturally/territorially distinct unit inside foreign territory AHD/W7
  exclude vb.trans to shut out AHD/W7
  include vb.trans to enclose, shut up AHD/W7
  kevel n sturdy belaying pin AHD
  occlude vb to obstruct, stop up AHD/W7
  ophicleide n brass wind instrument AHD/W7
  preclude vb.trans to close AHD/W7
  recluse adj solitary, withdrawn from society AHD/W7
  seclude vb.trans to keep away, confine in retired/inaccessible place AHD/W7
  sluice n water gate, valved conduit TLL
  sternocleidomastoid n neck muscle that rotates head AHD
Dutch: sleutel n key TLL
  slot n castle TLL
Old High German: sliozan vb to close W7
  sloz n lock, bolt KDW
  sluzzil n key KDW
German: Klavier n.neut clavier, piano W7
  Schloss n lock; castle TLL
  Schlüssel n key TLL
Old Norse: hlutr n.masc part, piece, thing LRC
Danish: slot n castle TLL
Swedish: slott n castle TLL
Latin: chorda n.fem string W7
  clathri lattices W7
  claudo, claudere, clausi, clausus vb to close W7
  claustrum n.neut bar, bolt W7
  clausula n.fem end, conclusion, end of period in rhetoric W7
  clava n.fem club W7
  clavicula n.fem little key, clavicle W7
  clavis n.fem key W7
  clavus n.masc nail, knot in wood W7
  concludo, concludere vb to shut up, end, infer W7
  excludo, excludere vb to exclude, shut out W7
  includo, includere vb to shut in W7
  occludo, occludere vb to close W7
  praecludo, praecludere vb to shut in W7
  secludo, secludere vb to separate, seclude W7
Vulgar Latin: inclavo, inclavare vb to lock up W7
Late Latin: recludo, recludere, reclusi, reclusus vb to shut up W7
Medieval Latin: clausa n.fem close of rhetorical period W7
  claustrum n.neut cloister W7
  clavichordium n.neut clavichord W7
New Latin: clavatus vb.ptc nailed in wood W7
Portuguese: chave n key TLL
  claustro n cloister TLL
Spanish: claustro n cloister TLL
  esclusa n canal lock TLL
  llave n key TLL
Old French: clause n.fem clause W7
  clavier n.masc key bearer W7
  cloistre n.masc cloister W7
  clore, clos vb to close W7
  reclus adj shut up W7
Middle French: clos n.masc enclosure W7
  closet n.masc closet W7
  closure n.fem fence W7
  conclave n.masc conclave, enclosed reunion W7
  enclave n.fem enclave, enclosed space W7
  enclaver vb to enclose W7
French: clavicule n.fem clavicle W7
  clavier n.masc keyboard W7
  clef n.fem key W7
  cloisonner vb to partition, fence in W7
  cloître n cloister TLL
  clôture n.fem fence W7
  éclosion n.fem eclosion W7
  écluse n canal lock TLL
  enclave n.fem enclave, enclosed area W7
  ophicléide adj re: genus of snake W7
Italian: chiave n key TLL
  chiostro n cloister TLL
Greek: kleiein vb to close W7
  kleis, kleidos n.fem key; collarbone W7
  klēithron n.neut bar W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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