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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑leu-, k̑leu̯ə- : k̑lū-   'to hear, listen'

Semantic Fields: to Hear; to Listen, Harken


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cloth n fame RPN
  clú n fame, renown RPN
  clúas n ear RPN
Old English: hlēoðor n.neut song, sound LRC
  hlūd adj loud, noisy RPN
  hlysnan vb to listen W7
  hlyst n.masc/fem hearing W7/ASD
  hlystan vb.wk to list RPN/ASD
Middle English: listen vb to list W7
  listnen vb to listen W7
  loud adj loud W7
  sclave n slave W7
English: ablaut n systematic vowel variation in same/related root/affix AHD/W7
  Clio prop.n Muse of history/heroic poetry (Greek mythology) LRC
  Damocles prop.n excessively flattering courtier featured in anecdote by Cicero LRC
  Hercules prop.n hero noted for exceptional strength (Greek mythology) LRC
  list vb to hear, listen (to) AHD/W7
  listen vb to hear, give ear to AHD/W7
  loud adj marked by high sound volume/intensity AHD/W7
  Loudwater prop.n a.k.a. Bruinen River in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sarod n many-stringed lute played with plectrum AHD
  Slav prop.n ethnonym of Indo-European in Eastern Europe TLL
  slave n bondman, one held in servitude as chattel W7
  Slavic n.prop re: Slavs or their language TLL
  umlaut n change of vowel sound AHD/W7
  Wenceslas prop.n duke/patron saint of Bohemia AHD
Old Frisian: hlūd adj loud ASD
Old Saxon: hlūd adj loud ASD
  hlust n hearing ASD
Old High German: hlioda n sound ASD
  hlūt adj loud W7
German: Ablaut n.masc ablaut W7
  laut adj loud W7
  Umlaut n.masc umlaut W7
  Wenzel prop.n Wenceslas AHD
Old Norse: hljóð n.neut silence, hearing LRC
  hljóðr adj silent, quiet LRC
Old Icelandic: hler n listening RPN
  hlust n ear RPN
  hlyða vb to listen RPN
Icelandic: hljōð n sound ASD
  hljōðan n sound, tune ASD
  hlust n ear ASD
  hlusta vb to listen ASD
Danish: lyd n sound ASD
Swedish: ljud n sound ASD
Gothic: hliuma n hearing RPN
Latin: Clio n.fem Clio W7
  clueo, cluēre vb to be called/named RPN
  cluō, cluāre vb to be called, be famous RPN
  Damocles n.masc Damocles W7
  Hercules n.masc Hercules, Heracles W7
  inclutus adj famous W7
Middle Latin: Sclavus prop.n Slav W7
  sclavus n slave W7
Spanish: esclavo n slave TLL
Old French: esclave n slave W7
French: esclave n slave TLL
Old Prussian: klausīton vb to hear RPN
Lithuanian: klausaũ, klausýti vb to listen RPN
Latvian: izklausīt, izklausu, izklausīju vb to ask, inquire LRC
  klàusît vb to listen RPN
Slovenian: slúšati vb to listen RPN
Old Church Slavonic: slava n.fem fame, glory LRC
  slaviti, slavl'jǫ, slaviši vb to glorify LRC
  slovo n.neut word LRC
  slovǫ, sluti vb to be renowned RPN
  sluxъ n.masc hearing, fame, rumor LRC
  slyšati, slyšajǫ, slyšaješi vb to hear LRC
  slyšati, slyšǫ, slyšiši vb to hear LRC
Russian: slúšat' vb to listen RPN
Greek: ἀκλεός adj without fame LRC
  Damoklēs n.masc Damocles W7
  Hēraklēs n.masc Hercules W7
  Kleiō n.fem Clio W7
  κλέος n report; fame, glory RPN
  κλέω vb to celebrate, make famous RPN
  κλυτός vb.past.pass.ptc heard RPN
  klytos adj famous W7
  κλύω vb to hear RPN
Classical Armenian: luṙ adj silent LRC
  lur n hearing; news, report; voice LRC
  lsem vb to hear, listen LRC
Armenian: lu vb.past.ptc/n heard; news, fame RPN
Avestan: surunaoiti vb to hear RPN
Sanskrit: śṛṇóti vb to hear RPN
  śrávas- n praise, fame, glory RPN
  śrutá-ḥ vb.past.pass.ptc heard RPN
  śroṣati vb to hear W7
Tocharian B: kälywe n reputation, renown RPN
  klautso n ear RPN
  klāw- vb to be called/named RPN
  klāwi n fame RPN
  klyauṣ- vb to listen, hear RPN
Tocharian A: klāw- vb to be called/named RPN
  klots n ear RPN
  klyoṣ- vb to listen, hear RPN
  klyw- n reputation, renown RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
past=past (tense)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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