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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑o-, k̑e-, with the particle k̑e, k̑(e)i-, k̑(i)i̯o-   'this; here'

Semantic Field: Near (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish:  dem.pron this RPN
Old English: behindan adv/prep behind W7/ASD
  hē, hēo/hīe, hit/hyt he, she, it LRC
  hēo/hī(e)/hȳ they, them LRC
  heonan/heonon/heonun/hionan adv hence W7/ASD
  hēr adv here LRC
  hider adv here, hither LRC
  hi(e)ra/heora their(s) LRC
  him, hire, him (to) him, her, it LRC
  him/heom (to) them LRC
  hindan adv from behind W7
  hinder adv behind W7
  hindrian vb.wk to hinder W7/ASD
  hine, hēo/hīe, hit/hyt him, her, it LRC
  his, hire, his his, her(s), its LRC
Middle English: behinde/behynd adv/prep behind W7/MEV
  he, hye, it he, she, it W7
  henne(s) adv hence W7
  here adv here W7
  hider adv hither W7
  him, hire, him (to) him, her, it OED
  him, hire/heer, hit him, her, it OED
  hind adj hind W7
  hindren vb to hinder W7
  his, hire, his his, her(s), its OED
  hither adv yonder W7
English: behind adv/prep in place/time/situation departed from AHD/W7
  cis- dem.pfx on this side AHD/W7
  he that male AHD/W7
  hence adv away, from this place AHD/W7
  her adj re: female as possessor, agent/object of action AHD/W7
  here adv at/in this place AHD/W7
  him that male AHD
  hind adj rear, re: part that follows/is behind AHD/W7
  hinder vb to hamper, make progress slow/difficult AHD/W7
  hindrance n act/instance/condition of hindering AHD
  his adj/ re: male as possessor, agent/object of action AHD/W7
  hither adv to this place AHD/W7
  it that one AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hīr adv here ASD
Dutch: haar (to) her TLL
  haar her TLL
  heden adv today TLL
  hem him TLL
  hen them TLL
  het it TLL
  hij he, it TLL
  hun (to) them TLL
  hun their TLL
Old Saxon: bihindan adv from behind ASD
  hēr/hier adv here ASD
  hinan adv hence ASD
Old High German:  pron.3.masc he W7
  hier/hiar adv here W7/ASD
  hin(n)an adv away W7/ASD
  hintana adv from behind ASD
  hintar/hindar prep behind W7/ASD
  hintarian vb to hinder ASD
German: hennen adv hence ASD
  herum adv around TLL
  heute adv today TLL
  hier adv here ASD
  hindern vb to hinder ASD
  hinten adv from behind ASD
  hinter adv behind ASD
Old Norse: hann dem.pron this one, he RPN
Icelandic: hana her, it TLL
  hann he, him, it TLL
  hans his, its TLL
  hennar her(s), its TLL
  henni (to) her, it TLL
  hēðra adv hither ASD
  hēr adv here ASD
  hindra vb to hinder ASD
  honum (to) him, it TLL
  hun she, it TLL
Danish: ham (to) him TLL
  han he, it TLL
  hans his TLL
  hende (to) her TLL
  hendes her TLL
  hun she, it TLL
Swedish: han he, it TLL
  hans his TLL
  henne (to) her TLL
  hennes her TLL
  hon she, it TLL
  honom (to) him TLL
Gothic: hēr adv here LRC
  hi- pron.stem this RPN
  hidre adv hither, to here W7/GED
  hindana adv beyond ASD
  hindar adv behind ASD
  hiri interj come here! RPN
Latin: cis/ci-/ce-/-ce dem.pron/prep/pfx/sfx this; here; on this side W7
  citra adv/prep on this side (of), without LRC
Lithuanian: šìs, šì dem.pron this LRC
  šìtas, šità pron this LRC
  štaĩ pcl here LRC
Old Church Slavonic:  dem.adj/pron this LRC
Greek: ekeinos dem.pron that person W7
  *κε- dem.pron.stem that RPN
Hittite: ka-a-aš dem.pron this, that RPN
  ki-i dem.pron.nom/acc.neut this, that RPN
Palaic: ka- dem.pron this (one) RPN
  ki-i-at adv here RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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