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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: koro-s, kori̯o-s   'war, army, warrior'

Semantic Fields: War; Army; Soldier


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: here n.masc host, army, (enemy) band LRC
  here-wulf n.masc warrior, lit. war-wolf ASD
  hergian vb.wk to harry W7/ASD
  stæl-here n.masc marauding army LRC
Middle English: arang n harangue W7
  harien vb to harry W7
  herald n herald W7
  herberge n harbor W7
  herbergere n harbinger W7
  horyen vb to hurry W7
English: arriere-ban n king's proclamation calling vassals to arms AHD/W7
  Dúnhere prop.n lord of Harrowdale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  harangue n speech addressed to public assembly AHD/W7
  harbinger n person sent ahead to arrange lodging AHD/W7
  harbor n refuge, place of security/comfort AHD/W7
  harry vb.trans to make pillaging/destructive raid AHD/W7
  herald n official making announcements at tournament of arms AHD/W7
  Herefara prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Herubrand prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Herugrim prop.n Theoden's sword in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hurry vb to carry/cause to go with haste AHD/W7
Old Frisian: here/hiri n host, army ASD
Dutch: herberg n inn TLL
Old Saxon: heri n host, army ASD
Old High German: heri/hari n host, army W7/ASD
  heriberga n hostelry, army encampment W7
  heriōn/harion vb to harry, lay waste W7/ASD
German: Heer n host, army ASD
  Herberge n.fem hostel, harborage LRC
  verheeren vb to harry ASD
Old Norse: herr n.masc harrier, destroyer LRC
Icelandic: herja vb to harry ASD
  herjask vb to wage war on one another ASD
  herr n host, army ASD
Gothic: harjis n.str.masc host, army LRC
Old French: ariere-ban n arriere-ban AHD
  herban n military service ban (summons) AHD
  herbergere n.fem host, harbinger W7
Middle French: arenge n.fem harangue W7
  hiraut n.masc herald W7
French: arrière-ban n arriere-ban W7
  havre n haven, harbor TLL
Old Italian: aringa n.fem harangue W7
Lithuanian: kãras n.masc war LRC
Greek: koiranos n.masc commander W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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