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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ku̯erp-, also ku̯erb-   'to turn, wind'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwe(a)rf n.masc turn, change, exchange ASD
  hwearf adj turning, veering, shifting ASD
  hwearft n.masc circle, circuit, revolution ASD
  hw(i)erfan/hwearfian vb.wk to turn, change, revolve, move about ASD
  hwirfan/hwyrfan vb.wk to turn, change, revolve, move about ASD
Middle English: whirlegigg n whirligig W7
  whirlen vb to whirl W7
English: whirl vb to turn/curve with force/speed W7
  whirligig n child's whirling toy IEW/W7
Old Frisian: hwarf/werf n turn, change, exchange ASD
  hwerva vb to walk, change, return ASD
Old Saxon: gi-hwerƀian vb to turn, change ASD
  hwerƀan vb to go, wander ASD
Old High German: hwarba n turn, change, exchange ASD
  hwarbian vb to change, rotate, return ASD
  hwerban vb to walk, change, return ASD
  wirbil n whirlwind W7
Old Norse: hverfa vb to turn LRC
  hvirfla vb to whirl W7
Icelandic: hverfa vb to turn ASD
Gothic: hwairban vb to walk ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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