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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kei(-t)-   'to observe with respect, pay attention to'

Semantic Fields: to Look; to Listen, Harken


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: cin n fault, liability RPN
Old English: *pīn n.fem pine, anguish, punishment W7/ASD
  pīnian vb.wk to pine, torture W7/ASD
Middle English: pain n pain W7
  penal adj penal W7
  pinen vb to pine W7
  punisshen vb to punish W7
  suppena n subpoena W7
English: impunity n freedom/exemption from loss/harm/punishment AHD/W7
  pain n punishment AHD/W7
  penal adj re: penalty/punishment/punitive institution AHD/W7
  penalty n punishment for crime/offense AHD/W7
  penance n compensation for ill deed(s) TLL
  penitence n remorse TLL
  penology n criminology branch dealing with prison management/treatment of offenders AHD/W7
  pine n.obs torture, torment, suffering OED
  pine vb.obs to torment, afflict with pain/suffering OED
  punish vb to impose penalty for fault/offense/violation AHD/W7
  punitive adj punishing, re: punishment AHD
  punitory adj inflicting punishment AHD
  repine vb to fret, complain, feel/express discontent AHD
  subpoena n writ commanding attendance at court AHD/W7
  timocracy n government based on wealth/love of honor AHD/W7
Dutch: pijn n pain LRC
Danish: pine n/vb pine; to pine, torture LRC
Swedish: pina n pain LRC
Latin: impūne adv without punishment W7
  impūnitas, impūnitatis n.fem impunity, lit. no punishment W7
  paenitentia n penitence, repentance ELD
  poena, poenae n.fem pain, penalty, punishment LRC
  poenalis adj penal W7
  pūnio, pūnīre vb to punish W7
Medieval Latin: poenalitas n.fem penalty W7
  timocratia n.fem timocracy W7
Old French: peine n payment, penalty W7
Middle French: impunité n.fem impunity W7
  pénal adj penal, of penalty W7
  punir, puniss- vb to punish W7
  tymocracie n.fem timocracy, rule of the wealthy W7
French: punir vb to punish TLL
Lithuanian: káina n cost, price RPN
Old Church Slavonic: pokazati, pokazajǫ, pokazaješi vb to show, instruct, correct, chasten LRC
  cěna n reward RPN
  čьstь n.fem rank, honor, reverence; feast, device, pattern LRC
Albanian: kohë n time IEW
Greek: ἀτιμάζω vb to dishonor LRC
  pitys n.fem pine W7
  ποινή n retribution, penalty RPN
  timē n.fem price, value, honor W7
  timokratia n.fem timocracy W7
  τίνω vb to atone for, pay the price RPN
Avestan: čikayat̰ vb to atone for RPN
  kaēnā n punishment, revenge RPN
Sanskrit: cáyate vb to avenge, punish RPN
  citi-ḥ n retaliation RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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