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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: legh-   'to move easily'

Semantic Field: to Move

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: lēoht adj light, easy LRC
  lungen n.fem lung W7/ASD
Middle English: elevaten vb to elevate W7
  legerdemain n legerdemain W7
  levain n leaven W7
  lever n lever W7
  light adj light W7
  lightenen vb to lighten W7
  lighter n lighter W7
  lightes n.pl lights W7
  lunge n lung W7
  releven vb to relieve W7
English: alleviate vb.trans to moderate, make easier to endure AHD/W7
  carnival n pre-Lenten season/festival of merrymaking AHD/W7
  elevate vb.trans to raise, lift up AHD/W7
  leaven n substance (e.g. yeast) producing gas/fermentation in dough/liquid AHD/W7
  legerdemain n sleight of hand AHD/W7
  lever n bar used to pry/dislodge something AHD/W7
  levity n excessive/unseemly frivolity AHD/W7
  light adj not heavy, having little weight AHD/W7
  lighter n large flat-bottomed barge used to load/unload ships AHD/W7
  Lightfoot prop.n Snowmane's dam in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  lightly adv not heavily LRC
  lights n.pl lungs of (slaughtered) animal IEW/W7
  lung n compound saccular thoracic respiratory organ of air-breathing vertebrate AHD/W7
  mezzo-relievo n sculptural relief between bas-/high relief AHD/W7
  relevant adj pertinent, bearing upon matter at hand AHD/W7
  relieve vb to succor, free from evil/burden/distress AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: līcht adj light, easy ASD
Middle Dutch: lichten vb to unload W7
  lichter n lighter W7
Dutch: long n lung TLL
Old Saxon: līht(līc) adj/adv light(ly) ASD
Old High German: līhti adj light, easy W7
  lungun/lung(in)a n.fem lung W7/ASD
German: leicht adj light, easy ASD
  Lunge n.fem lung ASD
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: léttr adj light, easy ASD
  lungu n.pl lungs ASD
Danish: lunge n lung TLL
Swedish: lunga n lung TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: leihts adj light, easy ASD
Italic  
Latin: elevo, elevare, elevavi, elevatus vb to raise W7
  levis adj light, smooth, mild W7
  levitas, levitatis n.fem lightness, inconstancy W7
  levo, levāre vb to lift, raise W7
  relevo, relevare vb to raise up, relieve W7
Vulgar Latin: levamen n.neut leaven W7
Late Latin: allevio, alleviare, alleviavi, alleviatus vb to make light W7
Medieval Latin: relevans, relevantis adj/vb.ptc relevant W7
Old French: lever vb to raise W7
  levier n.masc lever W7
Middle French: levain n.masc leaven W7
  relever vb to raise, relieve W7
Italian: carnevale n.masc carnival W7
  mezzorilievo n.masc half-relief W7
  rilievo n.masc relief, remark W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: leñgvas, lengvà adj light, easy LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: elachys adj small W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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