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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. leig-, loig-   'to hop, jump, tremble'

Semantic Field: to Jump, Leap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lāc n state, activity; play, sport, trick IEW/ASD
  lācan vb to play, trick; swing, wave about ASD
  lāwerce n.fem lark (laverock) W7/ASD
  wedlāc n marriage bond W7
Middle English: dweomerla(i)k n demerlayk, legerdemain, sleight-of-hand LRC
  lark n lark W7
  leik n game, sport, contest; trick MED
  leiken vb to play, trifle; trick, betray, beguile, deceive MED
  wedlok n wedlock W7
English: demerlayk n magic, witchcraft, sorcery, occult art/practice OED
  dwimmerlaik n Eowyn's epithet for Nazgul Lord in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  lark n singing bird of Europe/Asia/north Africa AHD/W7
  wedlock n matrimony, (state of) marriage AHD/W7
Old High German: lērihha/lērahha n lark W7/ASD
Middle High German: leichen vb to play ASD
  lērche n lark (laverock) ASD
German: Lerche n lark (laverock) ASD
Old Norse: leikr n.masc play, game, sport, action; scorn, mockery, derision IEW/ICE
Old Icelandic: leika vb to play, trick, delude; move, swing, wave ASD/ICE
Icelandic: lævirki n lark (laverock) ASD
Danish: lege vb to play, trick, delude ICE
Swedish: leka vb to play, trick, delude ICE
Gothic: laikan vb to play ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MED=Robert E. Lewis et al., eds. Middle English Dictionary (1954-1999, 2001)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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