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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. leip-   'to smear (with fat), stick'

Semantic Field: to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: belīfan vb to remain, be left over W7
  endleofan nbr.card eleven (11) W7
  lǣfan, lǣfde, lǣfed vb.wk.I to leave LRC
  lāf n.fem relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
  lēon vb to lend W7
  libban, lifde, lifd vb.wk.III to live LRC
  līf n.neut life LRC
  Līf-frea͡ prop.n.wk.masc lit. Life-lord LRC
  līflīc adj lively W7
Middle English: alyve adj alive MEV
  delayen vb to delay W7
  enleven nbr.card eleven (11) W7
  leven vb to leave W7
  lif n life W7
  lively adj lively W7
  liven vb to live W7
English: aliphatic adj re: fat AHD/W7
  alive adj living LRC
  delay vb to postpone, put off AHD/W7
  eleven nbr.card 11, lit. one left AHD/W7
  Fréaláf prop.n 10th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Guthláf prop.n Theoden's flag-bearer in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  leave, left vb.wk to depart, bequeath AHD/W7
  life n quality distinguishing vital/functional being from dead body/inert matter AHD/W7
  live vb to be alive, have plant/animal life AHD/W7
  lively adj living AHD/W7
  relay n supply arranged for successive relief AHD/W7
  relay vb to provide fresh relays AHD
  synalepha n blending of successive vowels into one syllable AHD
Old Frisian: andlova/elleva nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  lāva n relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
  lēva vb to leave ASD
  libba vb to live ASD
  līf n life ASD
Frisian: alue/alve nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Dutch: blijven vb to stay, remain ASD
Old Saxon: ellevan nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  farleƀian vb to remain ASD
  lēƀa n relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
  lēƀōn vb to be left ASD
  libbian vb to live ASD
  līf n life ASD
Old High German: einlif nbr.card eleven (11) W7
  lebēn vb to live W7
  leiba n relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
  leibēn vb to remain ASD
  leibjan vb to leave ASD
  līp n life ASD
  pilīpan vb to stay, remain ASD
  verleiben vb to leave W7
Middle High German: beliben vb to stay, remain ASD
  einlef/einlif nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
German: bleiben vb to stay, remain ASD
  e(i)lf nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  Leben n.neut life LRC
  leben vb to live LRC
  Leib n.masc relic, remnant, survivor, what is left LRC
Old Norse: leifa, leifað vb to leave LRC
  lifa, lifað vb to live LRC
  líf n.neut life LRC
Icelandic: ellifu nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  leif n relic, remnant, survivor, what is left ASD
  leifa vb to leave ASD
  lifa vb to live ASD
  líf n life, body, person ASD
Danish: blive vb to stay, remain ASD
  elleve nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Swedish: blifva, bli vb to stay, remain ASD
  elfva nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Gothic: aflifnan vb.wk.IV to stay, remain LRC
  ainlif nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  bi-laibjan vb to remain ASD
  laiba n remnant ASD
  liban vb to live ASD
Latin: caelebs adj unmarried W7
  laxo, laxāre vb to loosen, slacken W7
Old French: delaier vb to postpone W7
  laier vb to leave W7
  laissier vb to leave, let go W7
Homeric Greek: ʼάλειφαρ, ʼάλειφατος n.neut oil, fat, ointment LRC
  ἀλείφω vb to smear, anoint (with oil) LRC
  λίπα adv richly, with oil LRC
  λιπαρός adj sleek, shining (with oil) LRC
Greek: lipos n.neut fat W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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