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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. lendh-   'heath, steppe, open land'

Semantic Fields: Plain, Field; Earth, Land


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: land n open space W7
Old English: dūn-land n.neut hilly land, lit. down-land ASD
  Gotland prop.n.neut lit. Goth-land LRC
  Hālgo-land prop.n.neut Helgoland, district of Norway ASD
  īgland n.neut island W7
  Īraland prop.n.neut Ireland LRC
  lond/land n.str.neut land, realm, country LRC
  Scedeland prop.n.neut Danish land LRC
  Swēoland prop.n.neut Sweden LRC
Middle English: island n island W7
  land n land W7
  Laon n France W7
  lawn n lawn W7
English: auslander n alien, outsider, foreigner AHD
  Bree-land prop.n highland area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Buckland prop.n Shire locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Dunland prop.n hilly area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Helgoland prop.n North Sea island W7
  hinterland n region behind coast AHD/W7
  island n land (smaller than continent) surrounded by water AHD/W7
  land n solid part of earth's surface AHD/W7
  lawn n fine sheer plain-woven cotton/linen fabric AHD/W7
  Northerland prop.n lands north of Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Sunlending prop.n a.k.a. Gondor in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Tookland prop.n Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  uitlander n foreigner, lit. outlander AHD
  Wilderland prop.n wilderness area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Woodland prop.n Sylvan Elves' realm in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Dutch: eiland n island TLL
  land n land, country TLL
  platteland n countryside TLL
Afrikaans: uitlander n uitlander AHD
Old High German: lant n.neut land W7
Middle High German: lant n land AHD
German: Ausländer n.masc auslander LRC
  ausländisch adj foreign, alien, exotic LRC
  Hinterland n.neut hinterland W7
  Land n.neut land W7
Old Norse: eyland n.neut island W7
  land n.neut land LRC
  landauðn n.fem depopulation LRC
  landaurar n.masc land-dues (tax paid by Icelanders to king upon arrival in Norway) LRC
Icelandic: eyland n island ASD
Danish: land n land, country TLL
Swedish: land n land, country TLL
Gothic: land n.str.neut land, country LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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