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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. lep-   'to flay, peel, skin'

Semantic Field: to Flay, Skin


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: læfer/leber n.fem reed, lever(s) IEW
Middle English: leper n leper W7
  lepre n leprosy W7
English: elapid n venomous snake having grooved fangs AHD/W7
  laparotomy n surgical section of abdominal wall AHD/W7
  lemma n lower of 2 bracts enclosing flower in grass spikelet AHD/W7
  leper n person infected with leprosy AHD/W7
  lepidote adj covered with scurf/scurfy scales AHD/W7
  leprosy n chronic disease marked by nodules/macules with loss of sensation W7
  lepton n small Greek coin AHD/W7
  levers rushes, sedges IEW
  plasmalemma n differentiated protoplasmic surface of cell AHD/W7
  sarcolemma n thin membrane enclosing striated muscle fiber AHD
German: Lepra n.fem leprosy LRC
Late Latin: lepra n.fem leprosy W7
New Latin: Elaps n.masc snake genus W7
  plasmalemma n.fem cell surface W7
Old French: lèpre n.fem leprosy W7
Greek: ellops adj mute W7
  lapara n.fem flank W7
  lemma n.neut husk, fruit skin W7
  lepidōtos adj scaly W7
  lepis, lepidos n.fem scale, envelope W7
  lepra n.fem leprosy W7
  lepton n.neut small coin W7
  leptos adj light, delicate W7
  lepw vb to peel W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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