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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: leubh-   'to love, like, care for'

Semantic Field: to Love; Love


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: alȳfan vb to allow W7
  belēfan vb to believe W7
  (ge)lēafa n.masc belief W7/ASD
  gelīefan, gelīefde, gelīefed vb.wk.I to grant; believe, trust LRC
  lēaf n.fem leave, permission W7/ASD
  lēof adj lief LRC
  lī(e)fan/lēfan/lȳfan vb.wk.I to allow, believe W7/ASD
  lof-dǣd n.str.fem praiseworthy deed LRC
  lufu n.fem love W7/ASD
Middle English: beleave/beleeve n belief W7/MEV
  beleven vb to believe W7
  leve n leave W7
  l(i)ef adj lief W7
  love n love W7
  quodlibet n quodlibet W7
English: belief n state of mind: trust/confidence is placed in person/thing AHD/W7
  believe vb to have firm religious faith AHD/W7
  furlough n leave of absence AHD/W7
  leave n permission AHD/W7
  Léofa prop.n 11th Rohan king (as Brytta) in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  libido n passion, sexual desire AHD/W7
  lief adj dear, beloved AHD/W7
  livelong adj whole, entire AHD/W7
  love n affection based on admiration/benevolence AHD/W7
  love vb to cherish, hold dear W7
  quodlibet n whimsical combination of familiar texts/melodies AHD/W7
Old Frisian: liaf/lief adj lief ASD
Middle Dutch: lof n praise W7
  verlof n leave W7
Dutch: lof n praise LRC
  verlof n leave W7
  veroorloven n to allow, give leave LRC
Old Saxon: gi-lōƀo n belief ASD
  liof adj lief ASD
  or-lōf n leave ASD
Old High German: gilouben vb to believe W7
  ki-lauba n belief ASD
  laubo n belief ASD
  liob/liub/lieb adj lief ASD
  lupa n love W7
  urlaup n leave ASD
Middle High German: loube n leave W7
German: erlauben vb to allow, give leave LRC
  Glaube n.masc belief ASD
  lieb adj lief ASD
  Liebe n.fem love LRC
  lieben vb to love LRC
  Urlaub n.masc furlough, vacation LRC
Old Norse: lof n.neut praise LRC
  lofa, lofað vb to praise; allow, permit LRC
Old Icelandic: ljúfr adj lief LRC
Icelandic: leyfa vb to permit ASD
  leyfi n leave ASD
  ljúfr adj lief ASD
  or-lof n leave ASD
Gothic: ga-laubeins n belief ASD
  ga-láubjan vb.wk.I to believe LRC
  liufs/liubs adj lief ASD
Latin: libet/lubet, libēre/lubēre vb.impers to please, be lief W7
  libido n.fem libido W7
  quilibet pron any whatever W7
  quodlibet pron.neut whatever W7
Medieval Latin: quodlibetum n.neut subtle theological question posed for argument W7
New Latin: libido, libidinis n.fem passion, sexual desire W7
Lithuanian: liaupsẽ vb.ptc praising LRC
Old Church Slavonic: ljubiti, ljubljǫ, ljubiši vb to love LRC
Albanian: laps vb to wish, want LRC
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: λυπτά n concubine, prostitute LRC
Sanskrit: lúbhyati vb to feel strong desire LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
impers=impersonal (verb)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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