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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. leudh-   'to grow up; free; people'

Semantic Fields: to Grow; Free (adj); People, Populace


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lēod n.masc man, person, member of tribe LRC
  lēodan vb.str to grow W7/ASD
Middle English: deliveren vb to deliver W7
  liberal adj liberal W7
  liberty n liberty W7
  libertyn n libertine W7
  livery n livery W7
English: deliver vb.trans to set free AHD/W7
  Léod prop.n Eorl's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  liberal adj re: liberal arts AHD/W7
  liberate vb.trans to release, set at liberty AHD/W7
  libertine n manumitted Roman slave AHD/W7
  liberty n freedom AHD/W7
  livery n allowance, apportioning of provisions AHD/W7
Old Frisian: liode/liude n man, person ASD
Old Saxon: liodan vb to grow ASD
  liudī n man, person ASD
Old Low German: liud n.masc man, person ASD
Old High German: ar-liutan/fram-liutan vb to grow ASD
  liuti n man, person ASD
German: Leute people ASD
Icelandic: lȳðir people ASD
Gothic: juggaláuþs n.str.masc young man LRC
  liudan vb to grow ASD
Latin: liber adj free W7
  liberalis, liberalis, liberale adj liberal, generous LRC
  liberō, liberāre, liberāvī, liberātus vb to free, liberate W7
  libertas, libertatis n.fem liberty LRC
  libertinus adj/n.masc (re:) freedman W7
  libertus n.masc freedman W7
Late Latin: delibero, deliberāre vb to discuss W7
Old French: delivrer vb to set free W7
  livree n.fem delivery; uniform W7
  livrer vb to deliver W7
Middle French: libéral adj liberal, with democratic opinions W7
  liberté n.fem liberty, freedom W7
Latvian: ļaudis n.masc people LRC
Greek: eleutheros adj free W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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