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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: leup-, and leub-, leubh-   'to lift, peel, cut/break off, etc.'

Semantic Fields: to Flay, Skin; to Cut; to Break


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lēaf n.neut leaf W7/ASD
  loft n loft W7
  lyft n lift W7
Middle English: aloft(e) adv aloft W7/MEV
  leef n leaf W7
  lift n lift W7
  liften vb to lift W7
  loft n loft W7
  log(g)e n lodge W7/ODE
English: aloft adv in air, at/to great height AHD/W7
  Goatleaf prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  goatleaf n.arch honeysuckle (in The Lay of the Honeysuckle) LRC
  leaf n plant foliage AHD/W7
  Leaflock prop.n Ent a.k.a. Finglas in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  lift n air, sky, heavens AHD/W7
  lift vb to elevate, raise from lower to higher position AHD/W7
  lobby n room(s) used for waiting/passage W7
  lodge n hut, cottage, rude shelter/abode AHD/W7
  loft n attic, room/floor above another AHD/W7
  loge n small compartment, box in theater AHD
Dutch: lucht n air TLL
Old High German: loub n leaf W7
  louba n porch, lobby W7
  louppea n hut, booth, lobby, shady/sheltered place ODE
  luft n lift W7
Middle High German: loube n hall, porch; lobby, balcony ODE
German: Laub n.neut leaf LRC
  Laube n.fem lobby, alcove; arbor, trellis LRC
  Lift n.masc elevator LRC
  Luft n.fem lift LRC
Old Norse: lopt n.neut lift; upper room LRC
  lypta vb to lift, raise W7
Danish: loft n ceiling TLL
  luft n lift TLL
Swedish: luft n lift TLL
Middle Latin: lobium n lobby, gallery W7
Medieval Latin: lobia/laubia n lobby ODE
Portuguese: loja n lodge ODE
Old French: loge n lodge; arbor, covered walk AHD/ODE
French: loge n loge, lodge ODE
Provençal: lotja n lodge ODE
Italian: loggia n lodge ODE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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