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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: maghos   'maiden, young person'

Semantic Fields: Girl; Boy


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: macc n.masc son W7
  mug n serf W7
Old English: mægden/mǣden n.neut.dim maiden ASD
  mǣge n.fem kinswoman ASD
  mæg(e)þ n.fem maiden, woman, wife ASD
Middle English: maide n maid W7
  maiden n maiden W7
English: Entmaiden prop.n young female Ent in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  maid n maiden AHD/W7
  maiden n virgin, (young) unmarried girl/woman AHD/W7
  mermaid n fabled marine creature: fish-tailed woman W7
Old Frisian: megith n maiden, woman ASD
Dutch: meid n maid, girl LRC
  meisje n girl TLL
Old Saxon: magað n maiden, woman ASD
Old High German: māg n.masc kinsman KDW
  magad/magatīn n maid, girl W7/ASD
  māgin n.fem kinswoman KDW
Middle High German: maget(īn) n maiden ASD
German: Mädchen n maid, girl TLL
  Mädel n maid, girl LRC
  Magd n maid, woman ASD
Old Norse: mær n.fem maiden LRC
  mǫgr n.masc boy, son; [pl.] kindred LRC
Gothic: magaþs n maiden ASD
  magus n.str.masc boy, son LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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