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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: manu-s, or monu-s   'man, human being'

Semantic Fields: Man; Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: monn/man n.str.masc man, person; (name for) M-rune LRC
  mon(n)-cynn/man(n)-cynn n.neut mankind LRC
  wīf-man(n), wīf-men n.str.masc woman, lit. wife-man W7/ASD
  wīm-man(n), wīm-men n.str.masc woman, lit. wife-man ASD
Middle English: lefman/leman n leman, lit. lief-man W7
  man n man W7
  mankunde/mankyn(de) n mankind MEV
  Norman prop.n Viking, lit. north-man W7
  woman, women n woman W7
  yoman n yeoman W7
English: Barliman prop.n Bree innkeeper in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fugleman n trained soldier posted as model for men at drill AHD/W7
  Holman prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  leman n lover, sweetheart AHD/W7
  man, men n.str adult male human being AHD/W7
  manikin n mannequin AHD/W7
  mankind n human race, all human beings W7
  mannequin n lay figure for artist/tailor/dressmaker AHD/W7
  Mansbane prop.n a.k.a. Felarof in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Manu prop.n progenitor of human race (Hinduism) AHD/CDC
  mens(c)h n one having admirable characteristics AHD
  merman, mermen n fabled marine creature: fish-tailed man W7
  muzhik n Russian peasant AHD
  Norman prop.n man from Normandy (esp. ca. 1066) AHD/W7
  ombudsman n one who investigates complaints and mediates settlements AHD
  Púkel-men Wose-like statues in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Sandyman prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Saruman prop.n treacherous white wizard in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  westmansweed n pipe-weed in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  woman, women n adult female human being W7
  Woodmen Mirkwood dwellers in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  yeoman, yeomen n officer/attendant in royal/noble household AHD/W7
British English: charwoman n woman hired to clean house/office W7
Middle Dutch: man n man W7
  mannekijn n little man W7
Dutch: bemanning n crew TLL
  man n man, husband TLL
  mannekijn n little man W7
  mins n man LRC
Old Saxon: man-kunni n mankind ASD
Old High German: man n.masc man W7
  man-chunni n.neut mankind ASD
  mennisco n human being AHD
Middle High German: mensch n.masc human being AHD
German: Flügelmann n.masc fugleman W7
  Mann n.masc man W7
  Mannschaft n crew TLL
  Mensch n.masc man, person, human being LRC
Yiddish: Mensch n.masc mensch, human being AHD
Runic: *mannaz n man; (name for) M-rune LRC
Old Norse: maðr n.masc man, person; husband; henchman LRC
  Norþmaðr n Norseman W7
Old Icelandic: mann-kyn n.fem mankind ASD
Danish: mand n man, husband TLL
  mandskab n crew TLL
  menneske n man LRC
Swedish: man n.masc man TLL
  människa n man LRC
Gothic: manna n.irr.masc man LRC
Old French: Normant adj Norman, from Normandy W7
French: mannequin n.masc model, dress stand W7
Russian: muzh n man, male AHD
Sanskrit: manuḥ n man AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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