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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. me-   'me (1st pers. sg. oblique pronoun stem)'

Semantic Field: Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: me-sse me GED me GED
Scots Gaelic: mi I, me TLL
Welsh: mi me GED
Old English: (to) me W7
  mec/mic me GED
  mīn my W7
Middle English: madam(e) n madam W7/AHD
  me (to) me W7
  my my W7
English: Madam prop.n My Lady [title for married woman] AHD
  madam n lady AHD/W7
  mavourneen/mavournin n my darling AHD
  me self [as (in)direct object] AHD/W7
  mine re: self [as possessor] AHD/W7
  my re: self [as possessor] AHD/W7
  mynheer n Dutchman [title for gentleman] AHD/W7
  myself self [emphasized] AHD
Old Frisian: me (to) me ASD
  mi me ASD
  mīn my ASD
Dutch: mij (to) me  
  mijn my W7
  mijnheer n my lord/master W7
Old Saxon: mi (to) me ASD
  mik me GED
  mīn my ASD
Old High German: mih me GED/ASD
  mīn my ASD
  mir (to) me ASD
German: mein my LRC
  mich me GED
  mir (to) me GED
Runic: mez me GED
  m(i)k me GED
Old Icelandic: mek/mik me GED
  mēr (to) me GED
Icelandic: mér (to) me ASD
  mik me ASD
  mīn my ASD
  mīnn adj.poss my ASD
Danish: mig (to) me TLL
  min my TLL
Swedish: mej (to) me TLL
  mig (to) me TLL
  min my TLL
Gothic: meina my ASD
  meins adj.poss my, mine LRC
  mik me GED
Umbrian: mehe (to) me GED
Old Latin: mēd me GED
  mei (to) me GED
Latin: me GED
  meus, mea, meum my LRC
  mihi, mī (to) me GED
French: madame n.fem madam AHD
  mademoiselle n.fem girl, lit. my young lady AHD
  monsieur n.masc mister, gentleman, lit. my sir AHD
American French: Madame prop.n.fem Madam [title for married woman] AHD
  Mademoiselle prop.n.fem Miss, My Young Lady [title for girl/unmarried woman] AHD
  Monsieur prop.n.masc Mister, My Sir [title for gentleman] AHD
Italian: me me  
Lithuanian: -m me GED
  manè me GED
  -mi (to) me GED
Latvian: mani me GED
  mans my LRC
Old Church Slavonic: mi (to) me GED
  moi my LRC me GED
Russian: menya me TLL
  mne (to) me TLL
Albanian: im my IEW
  mua me GED
  mue me GED
Greek: ἐμέ, ἐμέγε me GED
  ἐμοί (to) me GED
  με me GED
  μοι (to) me GED
Lycian: amu me GED
Hittite: ammuk me GED
  -mu me GED
Old Persian: mām me GED
Avestan: me GED
  maibyā (to) me GED
Sanskrit: máhyam (to) me GED me GED
  mām me GED
Tocharian B: me GED
  ñä-ś me GED
Tocharian A: -ñi (to) me GED
  ñuk me GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
obj=objective (case)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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