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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. mē-, m-e-t-   'to measure'

Semantic Field: to Measure


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: mǣl/māl/mēl n.neut measure; time, occasion ASD
  mǣþ n.fem measure, portion W7/ASD
  mēter n.neut meter W7/ASD
Middle English: commensal adj commensal W7
  diametre n diameter W7
  dimension n dimension W7
  geometrie n geometry W7
  meel n meal; appointed time W7
  mensal adj mensal AHD
  mesure n measure W7
  meter n meter W7
  -metrie n.sfx -metry W7
English: bolometer n very sensitive resistance thermometer AHD/W7
  commensal adj re: those who eat together AHD/W7
  commensurate adj coextensive, equal in measure/extent AHD/W7
  diameter n chord passing through center of figure/body AHD/W7
  dimension n extension in one direction AHD/W7
  geometry n mathematics re: measurement/properties/relationships of points/lines/angles etc. AHD/W7
  immense adj huge, marked by greatness in size/degree AHD/W7
  isometric adj re: equality of measure AHD/W7
  mahout n keeper/driver of elephant AHD/W7
  maund n Indian unit of weight AHD/W7
  meal n portion of food eaten at one time AHD/W7
  measure n due/adequate portion AHD/W7
  measure vb to govern, regulate; allot, apportion W7
  mensa n table AHD
  mensal adj re: (meal) table AHD/W7
  mesa n isolated hill with steeply sloping sides/level top AHD/W7
  -meter n.sfx instrument/means for measuring AHD/W7
  meter n systematically arranged/measured rhythm in verse AHD/W7
  meter n metric unit of length AHD/W7
  metrical adj re: poetic meter AHD
  -metry n.sfx art/science/process of measuring (something) AHD/W7
  parameter n limit, qualification TLL
  piecemeal adv in stages, by small amounts AHD
  symmetry n balance in proportions AHD/W7
Old High German: māl n time W7
  meter n.neut meter ASD
Middle High German: māl n time, mealtime, occasion ASD
German: einmal adv once, lit. one time ASD
  Mahl n meal, mealtime ASD
  Mal n.neut time, occasion ASD
  Meter n.masc meter LRC
Icelandic: mál n time, mealtime, season ASD
Gothic: mēl n.str.neut time, season LRC
Latin: dimensio, dimensionis n.fem dimension, measure W7
  dimetior, dimetiri, dimensus vb to measure out W7
  immensus adj immeasurable W7
  mēnsa n.fem mensa W7
  mensura n.fem measure W7
  metior, metiri, mensus vb.dep to measure W7
  metrum n.neut meter, measure W7
Late Latin: commensuratus vb.ptc measured together W7
  mēnsalis adj mensal W7
  mensuro, mensurare, mensuravi, mensuratus vb to measure W7
Medieval Latin: commensalis adj re: banquet/eating together W7
New Latin: amenorrhea n.fem absence of menstruation W7
Spanish: mesa n.fem table W7
Old French: mesure n.fem measure W7
  metre n.masc meter, measure W7
Middle French: diametre n.masc diameter W7
  dimension n.fem dimension, measure W7
  geometrie n.fem geometry W7
  immense adj immense W7
  mètre n.masc meter, measure W7
  -metrie sfx measuring W7
French: mètre n.masc meter (unit in metric system) W7
Lithuanian: mẽtas n.masc time LRC
Latvian: mesties, metos, metos vb to set in LRC
Greek: geōmetrein vb to measure the earth W7
  geōmetria n.fem geometry, lit. earth measurement W7
  diametros n.fem diameter W7
  ʼέμμετρος adj metrical LRC
  metrew vb to measure W7
  -metria n.sfx action of measuring, measurement W7
  metron n.neut meter, measure, meter W7
  mēn n.masc month W7
  symmetria n.fem symmetry W7
  symmetros adj symmetric W7
Hindi: man n unit of weight W7
  mahāwat, mahāut n keeper/driver of elephants W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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