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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. med-   'to mete, allot; medicate, give advice'

Semantic Fields: to Measure; to Explain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣmetta/æmta/emta n.masc rest, leisure W7/ASD
  ǣmettig/æm(e)tig/æmteg/em(e)tig adj vacant, unoccupied, unmarried W7/ASD
  gemǣte adj meet W7
  metan vb to mete W7
  metod n.masc creator LRC
  -metta sfx empty W7
  mōtan vb.mod.ptpr must, may, be allowed W7
Middle English: commodious adj commodious W7
  commoditee n commodity W7
  empty adj empty W7
  immoderat adj immoderate W7
  medicine n medicine W7
  mete adj meet W7
  meten vb to mete W7
  moderate adj moderate W7
  modicum n modicum W7
  moede n mode W7
  mold n mold W7
  moten vb.mod must, may, be allowed W7
  remedie n remedy W7
English: accommodate vb to adapt, make fit/suitable AHD/W7
  commode n woman's ornate cap (popular ca. 17th-18th centuries) AHD/W7
  commodious adj handy, convenient, serviceable AHD/W7
  commodity n advantage, convenience AHD/W7
  Diomedes prop.n hero of the Trojan War (Homer's Iliad) LRC
  empty adj containing nothing AHD/W7
  immoderate adj subject to extremes in behavior/expression AHD/W7
  immodest adj not modest AHD/W7
  medical adj re: physicians/practice of medicine AHD/W7
  medicate vb.trans to treat medicinally AHD/W7
  medicine n substance/preparation used to treat disease AHD/W7
  medico n physician, medical practitioner AHD/W7
  meditate vb to contemplate, reflect on/muse over AHD/W7
  meet adj proper, suitable AHD/W7
  mete vb.trans to measure, allot AHD/W7
  metheglin n mead, beverage made of fermented honey AHD/W7
  modal adj re: modality in logic/language AHD/W7
  mode n arrangement of 8 diatonic notes/tones of octave according to intervals AHD/W7
  mode n prevailing style/fashion of dress/behavior AHD/W7
  model n set of plans for building AHD/W7
  moderate adj avoiding extremes of behavior/expression, observing reasonable limits AHD/W7
  modern adj contemporary, re: present/immediate past AHD/W7
  modest adj re: moderate estimate of one's worth/abilities AHD/W7
  modicum n small portion AHD/W7
  modiolus n central bony core of cochlea AHD
  modulate vb to tune to key/pitch AHD/W7
  module n unit/standard of measurement AHD/W7
  modulus n numerical constant/coefficient expressing degree to which property is present AHD/W7
  mold n type, distinctive nature/character AHD/W7
  mote vb.aux may AHD/W7
  moulage n (taking of) impression used as evidence in criminal investigation AHD/W7
  must vb.aux to be commanded/requested to AHD/W7
  mutchkin n Scotch unit of liquid measure AHD/W7
  remedy n medicine/application to cure/relieve disease/symptoms AHD/W7
Scots English: muchekyn n mutchkin W7
Old Frisian: meta vb to mete ASD
  mōt vb.mod must, may, be allowed ASD
Dutch: mode n mode: fashion TLL
  moet vb.mod.1/ (I/he) must TLL
Old Saxon: mōt vb.mod must, may, be allowed ASD
Old Low German: metan vb to mete ASD
Old High German: ge-māzer adj meet ASD
  mez(z)an vb to mete W7/ASD
  muozan vb.mod.ptpr must, have to, be allowed to W7
German: gemäss prep according to TLL
  messen vb to mete ASD
  Mode n.fem mode: fashion TLL
  muss vb.mod.1/ (I/he) must TLL
  müssen vb.mod must LRC
Old Norse: mjǫtuðr n.masc dispenser of fate LRC
Icelandic: meta vb to mete ASD
Danish: mode n mode: fashion TLL
Swedish: mod n mode: fashion TLL
  måste vb.mod.1/ (I/he) must TLL
Gothic: gamōt vb.mod must, may, be allowed ASD
  mitan vb to mete ASD
  mitōn vb.wk.II to think, consider LRC
Latin: accommodo, accommodare vb to fit, adjust, accommodate AHD/CLD
  commoditas, commoditatis n.fem proportion, kindness, convenience W7
  commodum n.neut commodity, opportunity W7
  commodus adj friendly, convenient W7
  Diomedes n.masc Diomedes W7
  immoderatus adj immoderate, without measure W7
  immodestus adj vain, immodest, extravagant W7
  medeor, medēri vb.dep to heal W7
  medicina n.fem medicine W7
  medicinus adj of a physician W7
  medico, medicare, medicavi, medicatus vb to heal W7
  medicus n.masc physician W7
  meditor, meditāri, meditātus vb.dep to meditate W7
  moderō, moderāre, moderāvī, moderātus vb to moderate W7
  modestus adj modest, convenable W7
  modicus, modica, modicum adj moderate W7
  modo adv in this measure W7
  modulor, modulari, modulatus vb.dep to play, sing W7
  modulus n.masc small measure, rhythm W7
  modus, modi n.masc kind, manner; measure, musical mode LRC
  remedium n.neut cure, remedy W7
Vulgar Latin: modellus n.masc small measure W7
Late Latin: medicalis adj of medicine W7
  modernus adj of the present W7
Medieval Latin: commodiosus adj convenient W7
  modalis adj modal W7
New Latin: modulus n.masc modulus W7
Spanish: médico n.masc physician W7
Old French: medicine n.fem medicine W7
  modle n.fem mold W7
Anglo-French: remedie n.masc remedy W7
Middle French: commodieux adj commodious W7
  commodité n.fem commodity W7
  modelle n.masc model, measure W7
  moulage n.masc moulage W7
  mouler vb to mold W7
French: commode adj convenient W7
  médical adj medical W7
  mode n.fem fashion W7
  moulage n.masc decoration made by moulding W7
Old Italian: modello n.masc model, measure W7
Italian: mèdico n.masc physician W7
Greek: Diomēdēs prop.n.masc Diomedes W7
  Μη̃δος prop.n.masc Mede LRC
Avestan: mad- n healer W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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