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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: mereg̑-   'march, edge, border, frontier'

Semantic Field: Edge

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: marc n marc W7
  marc n.neut mark: half a pound ASD
  mearc n.fem march: border, boundary ASD
  mearcian vb to mark W7
  *riddena-mearc n.fem land of knights, lit. riders' march LRC
Middle English: marche n march W7
  margin n margin W7
  mark n mark W7
  marken vb to mark W7
English: demarcation n act of marking limits/boundaries AHD/CDC
  Denmark prop.n Scandinavian country, lit. Dane-march LRC
  emarginate adj having notched margin AHD/W7
  Fenmarch prop.n east Rohan border in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  marc n residue from fruit pressing AHD/W7
  march n mark, frontier, border region AHD/W7
  march vb to walk steadily with regular stride AHD/W7
  marchese n marquess AHD/W7
  marchioness n wife/widow of marquess AHD/W7
  margin n part of page outside main body of printed/written matter AHD/W7
  Mark prop.n land a.k.a. Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  mark n border/boundary land AHD/W7
  mark n old European weight/currency unit AHD/W7
  mark vb to fix/trace limits/boundary (e.g. of land) AHD/W7
  marka n Germanic mark: currency unit AHD
  markka n Swedish mark: currency unit AHD
  marquee n large field tent for party/reception/exhibition AHD/W7
  marquess n nobleman ranked between duke and earl/count AHD/W7
  marquetry n (insertion of) wood/shell/ivory in veneer applied to furniture AHD/W7
  marquis n marquess AHD/W7
  marquise n wife/widow of marquis AHD/W7
  ostmark n E German monetary unit AHD
  reichsmark n German mark (1925-48) W7
  remark vb to mark distinctively AHD/W7
  Riddermark prop.n land a.k.a. Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Westmarch prop.n Shire district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: mark/merk n.fem mark: half a pound ASD
  merke n mark/march, district ASD
  merkia vb to mark ASD
Old Saxon: marka n mark/march, district ASD
  markōn vb to mark ASD
Old Low German: marka n mark/march, district ASD
Old High German: marc(h)a/marka n mark/march, boundary IEW/ASD
  marc(h)ōn/markjan/markēn vb to mark W7/ASD
Middle High German: marke n marka AHD
German: marschieren vb to march LRC
  Reichsmark n.fem reichsmark LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: mǫrk n.fem mark/march, forested border IEW
  mǫrk n.fem mark (of silver) LRC
Icelandic: marka/merkja vb to mark ASD
  mörk n mark/march, district, forested border ASD
  mörk n.fem mark: half a pound ASD
Danish: mark n mark: land, field TLL
Swedish: mark n markka AHD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: marka, markōs n.fem mark/march, borders (of a country) IEW/ASD
Italic  
Latin: emargino, emarginare, emarginavi, emarginatus vb to deprive of a margin W7
  margo, marginis n.fem border W7
Medieval Latin: marca n.fem mark/march, border region W7
  marcensis adj re: border region(s) W7
  marchio, marchionis n.masc marquess W7
  marchionissa n.fem marchioness W7
Old French: marche n march W7
  marchier vb to march, trample W7
Middle French: marc n.masc medieval coin W7
  marchier vb to march, trample W7
  marque n.fem mark, sign, brand W7
  marquer vb to mark W7
  marqueter vb to checker, inlay W7
  marqueterie n.fem marquetry, inlay W7
  remarquer vb to remark W7
French: marc n.masc marc; mark: unit of weight W7
  marquis n.masc marquess W7
  marquise n.fem marchioness; canopy, glass porch W7
  remarquer vb to remark W7
Old Italian: marcare vb to remark W7
Italian: marchese n.masc marquess W7/CID

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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