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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: mreg̑hu-, mr̥g̑hu-   'brief, short'

Semantic Field: Short


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: merge/mirige/myrge adj merry W7
  mir(i)gþ/myr(ig)þ/mirhþ n.fem mirth W7/ASD
Middle English: abbreviaten vb to abbreviate W7
  abreg(g)en vb to abridge W7
  brace n brace W7
  bracen vb to brace W7
  bref n brief W7
  breff/breve adj brief, meager MEV/W7
  embracen vb to embrace W7
  mery adj merry W7
  mirth n mirth W7
English: abbreviate vb.trans to shorten, make brief AHD/W7
  abridge vb.trans to deprive AHD/W7
  amphibrach n metrical foot: short/unstressed + long/stressed + short/unstressed syllables AHD/W7
  brace n two of same kind AHD/W7
  brace vb.arch to bind, fasten tightly W7
  Bracegirdle prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  bracero n Mexican laborer AHD
  brachium n upper part of arm/forelimb (shoulder to elbow) AHD/W7
  brachy- pfx short AHD/W7
  brassard n armor to protect arm AHD/W7
  brassiere n woman's close-fitting undergarment with cups for bust support AHD/W7
  brief adj short (in extent/duration) AHD/W7
  brief n official letter/mandate AHD/W7
  brumal adj re: winter AHD
  embrace vb to hug, clasp in arms AHD/W7
  Merry prop.n hobbit nickname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  merry adj delightful, giving pleasure AHD/W7
  mirth n gladness/gaiety shown by/accompanied with laughter AHD/W7
  pretzel n brittle glazed/salted cracker AHD/W7
  tribrach n metrical foot: three short syllables AHD/W7
Old High German: murg adj short W7
German: Brezel n.fem pretzel W7
Latin: amphibrachys adj short at both ends W7
  bracchia arms W7
  bracchiatus adj having branches like arms W7
  bracchium n.neut arm W7
  brevis, brevis, breve adj brief W7
  brūma n winter: season of shortest day AHD
  brūmālis adj brumal AHD
  tribrachys adj re: three arms W7
Late Latin: abbrevio/abrevio, abbreviare, abbreviavi, abbreviatus vb to abbreviate W7
Portuguese: breve adj brief TLL
Spanish: bracero n laborer, bracero AHD
  brazo n arm AHD
  breve adj brief TLL
Old French: abri(d)gier vb to abridge CDC
  brace n.fem two arms W7
  braciere n.fem arm protector W7
  bras n.masc arm W7
  bref adj brief, meager MEV
  embracier vb to embrace W7
Middle French: abregier vb to abbreviate W7
  brace n.fem two arms W7
  brassal n.masc brassard W7
  br(i)ef adj brief, short W7
  embracer vb to embrace W7
French: brassard n.masc brassard W7
  brassière n.fem brassiere W7
  bref adj brief TLL
Provençal: abrevjar vb to abridge CDC
Old Italian: bracciale n.masc brassard W7
  braccio n.masc arm W7
Italian: breve adj brief TLL
Greek: amphibrachys adj short at both ends W7
  brachiōn n.masc arm W7
  brachys, brachyos adj short W7
  tribrachys adj having three short syllables W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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