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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ned- : ned-   'to net, bind, connect, roll up, twist together'

Semantic Fields: to Bind; Knot (n)

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: net n net W7
  netel(e)/netle n.fem nettle W7/ASD
Middle English: annexen vb to annex W7
  nett n net W7
  nettle n nettle W7
  nouche n ouch, brooch W7
  ouch n ouch W7
English: adnexa n conjoined/subordinate/associated anatomic parts AHD/W7
  annex vb.trans to attach as quality/condition/consequence AHD/W7
  connect vb to tie/join/fasten together AHD/W7
  denouement n final outcome/unraveling of dramatic complication in literary work AHD/W7
  net n meshed fabric twisted/knotted/woven together at intervals AHD/W7
  net vb to catch/cover with net W7
  nettle n coarse herb with stinging hairs AHD/W7
  nexus n link, connection AHD/W7
  node n predicament, entangling complication AHD/W7
  nodule n small mass of rounded/irregular shape AHD/W7
  nodus n difficulty, complication AHD/W7
  noil n short textile fiber AHD
  noose n loop with running knot that draws tighter AHD/W7
  ouch n brooch, clasp AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old High German: nazza/nezila n nettle W7/ASD
  nezzi n net W7
  nusca n clasp W7
German: Nessel n.fem nettle LRC
  Netz n.neut net LRC
Italic  
Latin: annecto, annectere, annexi/annexui, annectus vb to annex, bind/join to W7
  cōnecto, cōnectere vb to connect W7
  nectō, nectere, nexī/nexuī, nexus vb to bind W7
  nodo, nodāre vb to tie W7
  nodulus n.masc small knot W7
  nodus n.masc knot W7
New Latin: adnexa vb.ptc.fem attached to W7
Old French: annexe n.fem part joined W7
  annexer vb to join W7
  desnoer vb to loosen, undo a knot W7
  noer vb to tie W7
Middle French: desnouement n.masc untying W7
  desnouer vb to untie W7
French: dénouement n.masc untying, denouement W7
Provençal: nous n.masc knot W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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