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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ōg-, əg-   'to grow; fruit, berry'

Semantic Fields: to Grow; Fruit; Berry

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: æcern/æcirn n.neut fruit, acorn W7/ASD
  īw n yew W7
Middle English: akern n acorn W7
English: acorn n oak nut AHD/W7
  pyruvate n salt/ester of pyruvic acid W7
  pyruvic adj re: liquid keto acid of metabolism AHD/W7
  uvea n posterior pigmented iris layer AHD/W7
  uvula n pendent fleshy lobe in soft palate AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Middle High German: ackeran n.pl acorns W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: akarn n.neut acorn ASD
Norwegian: aakorn n acorn ASD
Danish: agern n.neut acorn ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: akran n.str.neut fruit LRC
Italic  
Latin: ūva n.fem vine, grape(s) W7/CLD
Medieval Latin: uvula n.fem grape, uvula W7
Slavic  
Russian: yagoda n berry W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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