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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: oi-no-, oi-u̯o-   (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)

Semantic Field: One


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: oīn/oen adj/nbr.card single, one (1) EIE/AHD
Irish: aon nbr.card one (1) LRC
Scots Gaelic: aon nbr.card one (1) LRC
Manx: un/nane nbr.card one (1) LRC
Welsh: un art.indef;nbr.card a, an; one (1) EIE
Old English: ǣnlic/ānlic adj only, singular, elegant ASD
  ǣnlice adv only, singularly, elegantly ASD
  ān adj/adv alone, single; only LRC
  ān nbr.card one (1) W7
  ān-boren adj only-born, only-begotten ASD
  āni/ǣneg/ǣnig adj any (single) ASD
  endleofan nbr.card eleven, lit. one-left W7
  nān adj/pron no, none, lit. not one W7/ASD
  ynce n.masc inch W7
Middle English: alone adj alone W7
  a(n) art.indef a, an W7
  anely adj/adv only MEV
  anon(e) adv anon, at once, immediately W7/MEV
  any/ani adj any W7/MEV
  atonen vb to atone, become reconciled W7
  enleven nbr.card eleven (11) W7
  inch n inch W7
  lone adj lone W7
  (n)anes n nonce W7
  none pron none W7
  on(e) nbr.card one W7
  ones adv once W7
  ounce n ounce W7
  uni- pfx uni- W7
  union n union W7
  unite n unity W7
  uniten vb to unite W7
English: a art.indef an, one AHD/W7
  alone adj lone, unique, isolated AHD/W7
  an art.indef a, one AHD/W7
  Anborn prop.n Ithilien ranger in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  anon adv soon, presently AHD/W7
  Anson prop.n hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  any adj one indiscriminately (of whatever kind) AHD/W7
  atone vb to reconcile AHD/W7
  coadunate adj united AHD/W7
  einkorn n early cultivated single-grain wheat AHD
  eleven nbr.card 11, lit. one-left AHD/W7
  inch n unit of length: 1/12 foot AHD/W7
  lone adj solitary, having no company AHD/W7
  lonely adj lone, alone, desolate, solitary AHD
  nonce n one/present/particular use/purpose/occasion AHD/W7
  none pron not any, lit. not one AHD/W7
  once adv one time (but no more) AHD/W7
  one nbr.card 1, re: single unit/thing AHD/W7
  onion n Asiatic herb (lily) with pungent edible bulb W7
  only adj/adv sole, peerless; solely, merely W7
  ounce n unit of weight: 1/16 pound AHD/W7
  quincunx n five twelfths (of a unit) AHD/W7
  triune n trinity, lit. three in one AHD/W7
  uncial adj re: European book style of writing (4th-8th centuries AD) AHD/W7
  uni- pfx one, single AHD/W7
  union n joining/uniting multiple parts into one AHD/W7
  unique adj sole, single AHD/W7
  unite n old British 20-shilling gold piece AHD/W7
  unite vb to assemble into single unit AHD/W7
  unity n oneness, state/quality of being united AHD/W7
Old Frisian: andlova/elleva nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Frisian: alue/alve nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Dutch: ui n onion TLL
Old Saxon: ellevan nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  nēn adj/pron no, none ASD
Old High German: ein art.indef/nbr.card a, an; one (1) EIE
  einag adj any W7
  einlif nbr.card eleven, lit. one-left W7
  nein adj not one ASD
Middle High German: einlef/einlif nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
German: e(i)lf nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  ein art.indef/nbr.card a, an; one (1) LRC
  Einkorn n.neut einkorn, lit. single-grain LRC
Old Norse: einga adj sole, only LRC
  einka adv specially, particularly IEW
  einn nbr.card one (1) EIE
Icelandic: ellifu nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  neinn adj/pron no, none, lit. not one ASD
Danish: elleve nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Swedish: elfva nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
Gothic: ainlif nbr.card eleven (11) ASD
  ains adj/nbr.card alone, single; one (1) EIE
Old Latin: oinos/oenos adj/nbr.card alone, single; one (1) W7/ELD
Latin: quincunx, quincuncis adj five uncia's W7
  ūnā adv together, at/in same time/place LRC
  uncia n.fem 1/12 of a unit: inch, ounce W7
  uncialis adj inch-high W7
  uni- pfx uni- W7
  unicus adj unique W7
  unitas, unitatis n.fem unity W7
  ūnus, ūna, ūnum adj/nbr.card alone, single; one (1) W7/ELD
Late Latin: aduno, adunāre vb to unite W7
  coaduno, coadunare, coadunavi, coadunatus vb to combine W7
  ūniō, ūniōnis n.fem union, oneness; large pearl W7
  unio, unīre vb to unite W7
  unitus vb.ptc united W7
  unus nbr.card one (1) W7
Spanish: aunque conj although TLL
Old French: unité n.fem unity W7
Middle French: unce n.fem ounce, 1/12 part W7
  uni- pfx uni- W7
  union n.fem union W7
French: unique adj unique, single W7
Old Prussian: ains nbr.card one (1) EIE
Lithuanian: víenas, vienà adj/pron/nbr.card each, alone; one (1) IEW
Latvian: viêns adj/pron/nbr.card each, alone; one (1) EIE
  viņš pron he LRC
Old Church Slavonic: ino-rogŭ n unicorn EIE
  inъ adj/pron/nbr.card (an)other; one (1) IEW
Russian: odín- pfx uni- EIE
Homeric Greek: εʽι̃ς, ʽέν adj/nbr.card alone, single; one (1) LRC
Old Persian: aiva- adj/nbr.card alone, one (1) EIE
Avestan: aēva- nbr.card one (1) EIE
Sanskrit: éka- nbr.card one (1) W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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