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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ok-   'to see, ogle; eye'

Semantic Fields: to See; Eye


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æt-iewan vb.wk to show, appear GED
  ē(a)ge n.neut eye W7/ASD
Northumbrian: ēawa vb.wk to show, appear GED
Mercian: ēawan vb.wk to show, appear GED
Middle English: aunteler n antler W7
  dropesie n dropsy W7
  eye n eye W7
  inoculaten vb to insert bud in plant W7
  oilet n eyelet W7
  pirope n type of garnet W7
  ulage n ullage, empty part of container W7
  wawil-eghed adj walleyed W7
  windowe n window W7
  ydropesie n dropsy, edema W7
English: antler n solid deciduous deer horn AHD/W7
  autopsy n postmortem examination AHD/W7
  binocular adj re: both/two eyes W7
  binoculars binocular optical instrument W7
  catoptric adj re: mirror/reflected light AHD/W7
  daisy n familiar wild Eurasian plant/flower AHD/CDC
  diopter n optical instrument AHD/W7
  diopter n unit of measurement: lens refractive power AHD/W7
  dropsy n edema AHD/W7
  exophthalmos n abnormal protrusion of eyeball AHD/W7
  eye n organ of sight AHD/W7
  eyelet n small hole to receive cord AHD/W7
  inoculate vb.trans to communicate disease by introducing causative agent into tissue AHD/W7
  inveigle vb.trans to entice, win over by flattery AHD/W7
  iodopsin n photosensitive violet pigment in retinal cones AHD/W7
  metope n space between triglyphs of Doric frieze AHD/W7
  metopic adj re: forehead AHD
  monocle n eyeglass for one eye AHD/W7
  monocular adj re: one eye W7
  myopia n defective vision re: distant objects AHD/W7
  nyctalopia n night blindness AHD
  ocellus n minute simple eye(spot) of invertebrate AHD/W7
  ocular adj done/perceived by eye AHD/W7
  oculist n ophthalmologist AHD/W7
  oculomotor adj re: eyeball movement AHD
  oculus n eyelike opening/ornament AHD
  ogle vb to look with amorous invitation AHD/W7
  ommatidium n small simple eye, part of compound arthropod eye AHD/W7
  ommatophore n movable stalk ending with (snail) eye AHD
  opsin n visual pigment protein in retina AHD
  -opsis n.sfx structure resembling (some) thing AHD/W7
  -opsy n.sfx examination AHD/W7
  optic adj re: eye/vision AHD/W7
  optoelectronics n physics re: interconversion of light/electricity AHD
  optometry n art/profession of examining eye for defects AHD/W7
  panoptic adj re: everything in view AHD
  Pelops prop.n son of Tantalus served as food to the gods by his father (Greek mythology) LRC
  phlogopite n red/brown form of mica AHD/W7
  pinochle n game played with 48-card pack AHD/W7
  presbyopia n inability of old eyes to focus sharply AHD
  prosopography n statistical study describing people/characters in context AHD
  prosopopoeia n figure of speech with absent/imaginary person represented as acting/speaking AHD/W7
  pyrope n magnesium-aluminum garnet gemstone AHD/W7
  rhodopsin n red photosensitive pigment in retinal rods of fishes/vertebrates AHD/W7
  senopia n near-vision improvement due to old-age cataract AHD
  synopsis n abstract, condensed outline/statement AHD/W7
  triceratops n herbivorous dinosaur of Cretaceous Period AHD
  ullage n amount by which container lacks being full AHD/W7
  walleyed adj re: having whitish iris AHD/W7
  window n opening in wall to admit air/light AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ag(e)/ach/oge n.neut eye ASD
Old Frankish: t-oeghen vb.wk to show GED
Middle Dutch: t-oenen vb.wk to show GED
Dutch: oog n.neut eye ASD
Old Saxon: ōga n.neut eye ASD
  ōgian vb.wk to show GED
Low German: oegeln vb to see W7
  oog n eye W7
Old High German: ouga/auga n.neut eye W7/ASD
  ougan, auckan vb.wk to show GED
Middle High German: ouge n.neut eye ASD
  z-öugen vb.wk to show GED
  z-ounen vb.wk to show GED/IEW
German: Auge n.neut eye ASD
  Binokel n game resembling bezique W7
Old Norse: auga n eye W7
  eygr adj eyed W7
  vagl-eygr adj walleyed W7
  vindauga n window W7
Old Icelandic: eygja vb.wk to show GED
Icelandic: auga n eye ASD
Danish: vindue n window TLL
  øje n eye TLL
Swedish: öga n.neut eye ASD
Gothic: *augjan vb.wk.I to show GED
  áugō n.wk.neut eye LRC
Crimean Gothic: oeghene eyes CGo
Latin: hydrops n.masc dropsy W7
  inoculo, inoculare, inoculavi, inoculatus vb to graft in W7
  ocellus n.masc small eye W7
  oculus, oculi n.masc eye LRC
  Pelops n.masc Pelops W7
  prosopopoeia n.fem figure of rhetoric W7
  pyropus n.masc red bronze W7
Vulgar Latin: anteocularis adj located before the eye W7
  anteoculo, anteoculāre vb to put before one's eyes W7
Late Latin: monoculus adj monocular, having one eye W7
  ocularis adj re: eye(s) W7
  synopsis n.fem overview W7
Medieval Latin: opticus adj of sight W7
New Latin: myopia n.fem defective vision re: distant objects W7
  ocellus n.masc.dim eye(spot) of invertebrate W7
  ommatidium n.neut part of compound arthropod eye W7
Portuguese: ôlho n eye TLL
Spanish: ojo n eye TLL
Old French: antollier n antler AHD
  avogle adj blind W7
  avogler vb to make blind W7
  ouil n.masc eye, bunghole W7
  ydropesie n.fem hydropsy W7
Middle French: antoillier adj located before the eye(s) W7
  aveugler vb to blind, hoodwink W7
  dioptre n.masc diopter W7
  eullage n.masc act of filling cask W7
  eullier vb to fill a cask W7
  oil n.masc eye W7
  oillet n.masc.dim flower; small eye W7
  optique adj re: sight W7
  pirope n.fem a red gem W7
French: binocle n.masc pair of eye-glasses W7
  monocle n.masc single eye-glass W7
  oculiste n.masc oculist W7
  œil, yeux n.masc eye(s) TLL
Italian: occhio n eye TLL
Lithuanian: akìs n.fem eye LRC
Latvian: acs n.fem eye LRC
  uzacs n.fem eyebrow LRC
Old Church Slavonic: oko n.neut eye LRC
Greek: autopsia n.fem act of seeing with one's own eyes W7
  exophthalmos adj having prominent eyes W7
  katoptrikos adj catoptric W7
  katoptron n.neut mirror W7
  katopsomai vb to be going to observe W7
  metopē n.fem metope W7
  myōpia n.fem myopia W7
  myōps, myōpos adj having half-shut eyes W7
  omma, ommatos n.neut eye W7
  opē n.fem opening W7
  optikos adj re: sight W7
  ophthalmos n.masc eye W7
  -opsia sfx looking like W7
  opsis n.fem/sfx appearance; having likeness of W7
  opsomai vb to be going to see W7
  πρόσωπον n.neut mask, face, person LRC
  prosōpopoiia n.fem figure of rhetoric W7
  pyrōpos adj fiery-eyed W7
  σύνοπτος adj visible LRC
  synopsis n.fem comprehensive view W7
  hydrōps n.masc dropsy W7
  phlogōpos adj fiery-looking W7
  ōps n.fem eye, face W7
Sanskrit: aksha n.neut eye ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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