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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: om-   'raw, coarse, bitter'

Semantic Field: Bitter


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ampre n sorrel W7
English: amarelle n cultivated cherry derived from sour cherry AHD/W7
  amaretto n almond liqueur AHD
  ambarella n tropical/equatorial fruit tree AHD
  marasca n European sour cherry tree AHD
  maraschino n sweet liqueur distilled from fermented juice of bitter wild cherry AHD/W7
  morello n cherry distinguished from amarelle by dark-colored skin/juice AHD/W7
Flemish: (a)marelle n amarelle W7
German: Amarelle n amarelle AHD
Latin: amarus adj bitter W7
Medieval Latin: amarellum adj bitter W7
  amarellum n.neut bitter wild cherry W7
Italian: amaretto n amaretto LRC
  amaro adj bitter LRC
  marasca n.fem marasca, bitter wild cherry W7
  maraschino n.masc cherry liqueur W7
Albanian: ambëlë adj sweet IEW
Gheg: ambel adj sweet LRC
Greek: ὠμοβόειος adj re: raw untanned oxhide LRC
  ōmos adj raw W7
Sanskrit: āmraḥ n mango tree AHD
  āmravāṭakaḥ n ambarella AHD
  āmlaḥ adj tart AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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