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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: ōr-, ər-   'to call, speak, talk, orate'

Semantic Fields: to Call, Summon; to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: adouren vb to adore AHD
  oracle n oracle W7
  oratorie n oratory W7
English: adore vb.trans to worship/honor as divine AHD/W7
  inexorable adj relentless, not moved/persuaded by entreaty AHD/W7
  oracle n person through whom deity is held to speak AHD/W7
  orate vb to harangue, speak in declamatory/grandiloquent manner W7
  oration n elaborate discourse delivered in.formal/dignified manner AHD/W7
  orator n plaintiff, petitioner, skilled public speaker AHD/W7
  oratory n art of public speaking AHD/W7
  oratory n place of prayer AHD/W7
  perorate vb.intrans to declaim, deliver long/grandiloquent oration AHD/W7
Latin: adoro, adorāre vb to adore W7
  exorabilis adj pliant W7
  exoro, exorare vb to prevail upon W7
  inexorabilis adj inexorable W7
  oraculum n.neut omen, prediction W7
  oratio, orationis n.fem speech, oration W7
  oratoria n.fem (art of) oratory W7
  oratorius adj oratorical W7
  ōrō, ōrāre, ōrāvī, ōrātus vb to pray, speak, orate LRC
  peroro, perorare, peroravi, peroratus vb to declaim at length, wind up an oration W7
Late Latin: oratorium n.neut oratory W7
Old French: adourer vb to adore AHD
Middle French: adorer vb to adore W7
  oracle n.masc oracle W7
Russian: orat vb to yell, orate W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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