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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ost(h)-, ost(h)i, ost(h)r̥(g), oblique ost(h)-(e)n-   'os, bone'

Semantic Field: Bone


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: oistre n oyster W7
English: astragal n narrow half-round molding AHD/W7
  astragalus n proximal bone of higher vertebrate tarsus AHD/W7
  endosteum n vascular connective tissue layer AHD/W7
  exostosis n spur/bony outgrowth from bone/root of tooth AHD/W7
  os n bone AHD/W7
  osseous adj bony AHD/W7
  ossicle n small bone/calcareous body part AHD/W7
  ossuary n depository for bones of dead AHD/W7
  oste(o)- pfx bone AHD
  osteoma n benign tumor of bony tissue AHD
  osteomalacia n deficiency disease, lit. bone-softness AHD
  ostracize vb.trans to exile by popular vote AHD/W7
  ostracod n (mostly freshwater) small active crustacean AHD/W7
  ostracoderm n.arch extinct primitive armored jawless fish-like vertebrate AHD
  ostracon n potsherd (used for writing/drawing) AHD
  oyster n marine bivalve mollusk with rough irregular shell AHD/W7
  periosteum n connective tissue membrane investing bones AHD/W7
  periostracum n hard protective covering of mollusk shell AHD
  synost(e)osis n union via bone, fusion of normally separate bones CDC/AHD
  teleost n fish with bony rather than cartilaginous skeleton AHD/W7
British English: ostracise vb.trans to ostracize LRC
Dutch: oester n oyster TLL
German: Auster n oyster TLL
Danish: østers n oyster TLL
Swedish: ostron n oyster TLL
Old Latin: os, ossua n.neut bone(s) W7
Latin: os, ossis n.neut bone W7
  osseus adj osseous, re: bone W7
  ossiculum n.neut small bone W7
  ossuarium n.neut urn containing bones W7
  ossuarius adj of bones W7
  ostrea n.fem oyster W7
Late Latin: periosteon n.neut periosteum W7
New Latin: astragalus n.masc astragalus W7
  endosteum n.neut bone in the inside W7
  exostosis n.fem bony growth W7
  periosteum n.neut tissue membrane investing bones W7
Portuguese: ostra n oyster TLL
Spanish: ostra n oyster TLL
Middle French: oistre n.fem oyster W7
French: huître n oyster TLL
Italian: ostrica n oyster TLL
Greek: astragalos n.masc ankle-bone; molding W7
  exostōsis n.fem dedication W7
  osteon n.neut bone W7
  ostrakizw vb to banish by voting (with ostracons) W7
  ostrakon n.neut shell, ostracon W7
  ostreon n.neut oyster W7
  periosteos adj around the bone W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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