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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: pē(i)-, pī-   'to hurt, scold, shame'

Semantic Fields: to Harm, Injure, Damage; Shame (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fēond/fīond/fȳnd/fīend n.masc fiend AHD/ASD
Middle English: compassion n compassion W7
  fiend n fiend W7
  pacient n patient W7
  passible adj passible W7
  passion n passion W7
  passive adj passive W7
English: compassion n consciousness of/sympathy with/desire to alleviate others' distress AHD/W7
  fiend n foe, demon, devil, enemy AHD/W7
  passible adj capable of feeling/suffering AHD/W7
  passion n sufferings (of Christ) AHD/W7
  passive adj acted upon by external agency AHD/W7
  patient adj bearing pains/trials calmly/without complaint AHD/W7
  pen- pfx almost TLL
  penult n next to last item (in series) TLL
Old Frisian: fiand/fiund n.masc fiend ASD
Frisian: fynne n.masc fiend ASD
Dutch: vijand n.masc fiend ASD
Old Saxon: fīand/fīond/fīund/fīunt n.masc fiend ASD
Low German: fij(e)nd n.masc fiend ASD
Old High German: fīant/fīent n.masc fiend ASD
Middle High German: vīant/vī(e)nt n.masc fiend ASD
German: Feind n.masc fiend ASD
Icelandic: fjāndi n.masc fiend ASD
Danish: fiende n.masc fiend ASD
Swedish: fiende n.masc fiend ASD
Gothic: fiyands n.masc fiend ASD
Latin: paene adv almost LRC
  passivus adj passive W7
  passus vb.ptc suffered, experienced W7
  patiens, patientis adj/vb.ptc patient, re: enduring suffering W7
  patior, patī, passus vb.dep to bear, suffer, endure LRC
  penuria n.fem need, want W7
Late Latin: compassio n.fem sympathy W7
  compassus vb.ptc sympathizing W7
  compatior, compati vb.dep to sympathize W7
  passibilis adj passible W7
  passio, passionis n.fem suffering, being acted upon W7
Old French: passion n.fem passion W7
Middle French: compassion n.fem sympathy W7
  pacient adj patient, re: enduring suffering W7
  passible adj passible W7
Homeric Greek: πάσχω vb to bear, suffer, be maltreated LRC
  πη̃μα n.neut woe, harm, suffering LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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