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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: penke   'five, fifth'

Semantic Field: Number


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cōic nbr.card five (5) EIE
  cōiced nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Irish: cúig nbr.card five (5) LRC
Scots Gaelic: còig nbr.card five (5) LRC
Manx: queig nbr.card five (5) LRC
Cornish: pemp nbr.card five (5) ASD
Old Welsh: pimp nbr.card five (5) EIE
  pimphet nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Old English: fīf nbr.card five (5) LRC
  fīfta nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
  fīftig nbr.card fifty (50) W7
  finger n.masc finger W7/ASD
Middle English: cink nbr.card cinque W7
  fifty nbr.card fifty (50) W7
  finger n finger W7
  five nbr.card five (5) W7
  penta- pfx penta- W7
  quintaine n quintain W7
English: cinquain n five-line stanza AHD/W7
  cinque nbr.card five (5) AHD/W7
  femto- pfx one quadrillionth AHD
  fifth nbr.ord 5th LRC
  fifty nbr.card 50 AHD/W7
  fin n 5-dollar bill AHD/W7
  finger n any of hand's 5 terminating members AHD/W7
  five nbr.card 5 AHD/W7
  keno n game resembling lotto AHD/W7
  penstemon n beardtongue: flowering plant with many seeds AHD
  penta- pfx five (5) AHD/W7
  pentad n five (5) AHD/W7
  pentagon n polygon of five sides/angles AHD/W7
  pentameter n verse containing 5 feet AHD/W7
  pentastich n poem/stanza with five lines AHD
  Pentateuch prop.n first 5 books of Hebrew Bible, lit. five containers LRC
  pentathlon n athletic contest: 5 different events AHD/W7
  Pentecost prop.n 50th day after Passover/Easter LRC
  punch n beverage: wine/liquor, fruit juice, sugar, spices, tea/water AHD/W7
  quinate adj in groups of five AHD
  quincentenary n/adj fifth centennial; re: 500 years AHD
  quincunx n five-twelfths (5/12) AHD/W7
  quinquagenarian n person in his/her fifties AHD
  Quinquagesima prop.n Sunday 50 days (incl.) before Easter in Christian calendar LRC
  quinque- pfx five (5) AHD/W7
  quint n sequence of 5 cards in same suit AHD/W7
  quintain n object to be tilted at AHD/W7
  quintet n musical movement/composition for 5 voices/instruments AHD/W7
  quintile n aspect of planets separated 72 degrees (1/5 of circle) AHD/W7
  quintillion nbr.card 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 (U.S.) AHD/W7
Old Frisian: fif nbr.card five (5) ASD
  fing(e)r n.masc finger ASD
Frisian: finger n finger ASD
  fyf nbr.card five (5) ASD
Dutch: vijf nbr.card five (5) ASD
  vinger n.masc finger ASD
Old Saxon: fīf/vīf nbr.card five (5) ASD
  fingar n.masc finger ASD
Low German: five/fiwe nbr.card five (5) ASD
Old High German: fifto nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
  fimf/finf nbr.card five (5) ASD
  fingar n.masc finger W7/ASD
Middle High German: finger n.masc finger ASD
  vunf/vünf nbr.card five (5) ASD
German: Finger n.masc finger ASD
  fünf nbr.card five (5) ASD
  fünfzig nbr.card fifty (50) LRC
Yiddish: finf nbr.card five (5) W7
Old Norse: fimm nbr.card five (5) LRC
  fimmtān nbr.card fifteen (15) AHD
  fimti nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Icelandic: fingr n.masc finger ASD
Norwegian: femten nbr.card fifteen (15) AHD
Danish: fem nbr.card five (5) ASD
  femten nbr.card fifteen (15) AHD
  finger n.masc/fem finger ASD
Swedish: fem nbr.card five (5) ASD
  finger n.masc/neut finger ASD
Gothic: figgrs n.masc finger ASD
  fi(m)f nbr.card five (5) ASD
  fimfta- nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Crimean Gothic: *fynf/fyuf nbr.card five (5) CGo/EIE
Latin: pentameter n.masc pentameter W7
  quincunx, quincuncis adj five-twelfths (5/12) W7
  quinquāgēsima n.fem tax of the fiftieth W7
  quinquagesimus adj fiftieth W7
  quinquaginta nbr.card fifty (50) W7
  quīnque nbr.card five (5) W7
  quintana n.fem street in Roman camp (separating 5th maniple from 6th) used for military exercises W7
  quintanus adj fifth in rank W7
  Quintilis prop.n fifth month (in old Roman calendar) LRC
  quīntus adj/nbr.ord fifth (5th) W7
Middle French: cinq nbr.card five (5) W7
  quintaine n.fem street in Roman camp used for exercise W7
French: cinq nbr.card five (5) W7
  quine n.fem set of 5 winning lottery numbers W7
  quint adj fifth W7
  quinte n.fem group of 5 W7
  quintette n.masc quintet, band with 5 instruments W7
Italian: quintetto n.masc quintet, party of 5 persons W7
  quinto adj fifth W7
Old Prussian: piēncts nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Lithuanian: penkì, peñkios nbr.card five (5) LRC
  peñktas nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Latvian: pìektais nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Old Church Slavonic: pętŭ nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
  pętь nbr.card five (5) LRC
Russian: pjatĭ nbr.card five (5) EIE
  pjátyj nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Albanian: pesë nbr.card five (5) EIE
  pestë nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Gheg: pêsë nbr.card five (5) EIE
Aeolic: πέμπε nbr.card five (5) EIE
Homeric Greek: πέντε nbr.card five (5) LRC
  πεντήκοντα nbr.card fifty (50) LRC
Greek: πέμπτος adj/nbr.ord fifth (5th) LRC
  pentagōnon n.neut pentagon W7
  pentagōnos adj pentagonal W7
  pentathlon n.neut pentathlon W7
  pentametros adj having five metrical feet W7
  pentas n.fem group of five W7
  πεντηκοστή n.fem Pentecost LRC
Armenian: hing nbr.card five (5) EIE
Avestan: panča nbr.card five (5) EIE
  puxδa- nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
Sanskrit: pakthá- nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
  paṅkti- n group of five EIE
  páñca nbr.card five (5) W7
Hindi: pāc nbr.card five (5) W7
Tocharian B: piṅkte nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE
  piś nbr.card five (5) EIE
Tocharian A: päñ nbr.card five (5) EIE
  pänt nbr.ord fifth (5th) EIE


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
EIE=J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams, eds. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture (1997)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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