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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2d. per-   'to bear (a child)'

Semantic Fields: Pregnant; to Bear (of Mother)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fearr n.masc bull, ox RPN
  hēahfore n.fem heifer W7
Middle English: apparale n gear, apparel, preparations MEV
  appareillen vb to apparel W7
  emperor n emperor W7
  hayfare n heifer W7
  imperial adj imperial W7
  junipere n juniper W7
  paren vb to pare W7
  parent n parent W7
  preparen vb to prepare W7
  repairen vb to repair W7
  separaten vb to separate W7
  several adj several W7
  severen vb to sever W7
English: apparatus n equipment/materials for certain use AHD/W7
  apparel n attire, equipment W7
  apparel vb.trans to dress, put clothes on AHD/W7
  comprador n Chinese agent engaged by foreign establishment in China AHD/W7
  disparate adj dissimilar, distinct in quality/character AHD/W7
  emperor n supreme/sovereign monarch of empire AHD/W7
  heifer n young cow AHD/W7
  imperative adj re: grammatical mood expressing will to influence behavior AHD/W7
  imperator n army commander in Roman Republic AHD
  imperial adj re: empire/emperor AHD/W7
  juniper n evergreen tree/shrub of pine family AHD/W7
  multipara n female that has borne offspring 2+ times CDC
  nullipara n female that has borne no offspring AHD
  -para n.sfx woman delivered of (number of) children AHD/W7
  parachute n light fabric device for descending in air AHD/W7
  parade n exhibition, pompous show AHD/W7
  parasol n lightweight umbrella for blocking sun AHD/W7
  pare vb.trans to trim/shave off AHD/W7
  parent n one that begets/brings forth offspring AHD/W7
  parity n equal/equivalent AHD/W7
  parlay vb.trans to wage series of bets AHD/W7
  -parous adj producing, giving birth to AHD/W7
  parry vb to ward off blow/weapon AHD/W7
  parturient adj re: bringing forth young AHD/W7
  parure n matched set of jewelry/ornaments AHD/W7
  postpartum adj re: period shortly after childbirth AHD
  prepare vb to make ready AHD/W7
  primipara n female bearing first offspring AHD/W7
  rampart n fortification: embankment (with parapet atop) AHD
  repair vb to fix, restore by replacing/reassembling torn/broken part(s) AHD/W7
  repertory n repository, place where thing may be found AHD/W7
  separate vb to sever, disconnect, set/keep apart AHD/W7
  sever vb to divide, put/keep apart AHD/W7
  several adj different, separate/distinct from others AHD/W7
  viper n common European venomous snake AHD/W7
Dutch: var(re) n.masc bull, bullock ASD
Old High German: farro/far(ri) n.masc bull, bullock RPN/ASD
Middle High German: var(re) n.masc bull, bullock ASD
German: Farr(e) n.masc bullock ASD
Old Icelandic: farri n.masc bullock RPN
  frjó n seed RPN
  frjóa vb to be/make fertile RPN
  frjó-ligr adj fruitful RPN
  frjór adj fertile RPN
  frjó-samr adj fruitful RPN
  fræ n seed RPN
Icelandic: farri n.masc bullock ASD
Gothic: fraiw n seed RPN
Latin: apparatus n.masc thing(s) belonging with something W7
  apparatus vb.ptc prepared W7
  apparo, apparāre vb to prepare W7
  disparatus vb.ptc separated W7
  disparo, disparare vb to separate W7
  imperator n.masc commander W7
  imperatus vb.ptc commanded W7
  imperium n.neut command; empire W7
  impero, imperāre vb to command W7
  juniperus n.fem juniper W7
  par adj equal W7
  -para/-parus sfx giving birth W7
  parens, parentis n.masc/fem parent, father, mother W7
  pariō, parere, peperī, partum vb to bear, bring forth RPN
  paritas n.fem equality W7
  parō, parāre vb to prepare, equip, make ready W7/ELD
  parturiens, parturientis vb.pres.ptc in labor W7
  parturio, parturire vb to be in labor W7
  praeparo, praeparare vb to prepare W7
  reparo, reparāre vb to fix W7
  reperio, reperīre vb to find W7
  repertus vb.ptc found W7
  separ adv separate W7
  separatus vb.ptc separated W7
  sēparo, sēparare vb to sever, separate W7
  vipera n.fem viper, snake W7
Vulgar Latin: appariculo, appariculare vb to equip W7
Late Latin: imperativus adj re: command W7
  imperialis adj re: empire W7
  repertorium n.neut list W7
Medieval Latin: separalis adj separate W7
Portuguese: comprador n.masc buyer W7
Old French: aparail n gear, preparations MEV
  apareillier vb to prepare W7
  empereor n.masc emperor, commander W7
  parer vb to prepare, adorn W7
  pareure n.fem parure, jewels, woman's dress W7
Anglo-French: several adj not numerous W7
Middle French: impérial adj re: empire W7
  parade n.fem parade, defensive blow, preparation W7
  parent n.masc parent, father W7
  parer vb to prepare W7
  préparer vb to prepare W7
  réparer vb to fix W7
  sévèrer vb to sever W7
  vipere n.fem viper W7
French: para- pfx against, on the side W7
  parachute n.masc parachute W7
  parade n.fem parade W7
  parasol n.masc parasol: sun umbrella W7
  parer vb to prepare, counteract W7
  parez vb.imp prepare W7
  parure n.fem outfit, jewelry worn by woman W7
  remparer vb to fortify ODE
  rempart n rampart, battlement ODE
Old Provençal: parar vb to prepare W7
Italian: paro adj equal W7
Lithuanian: periù, perė́ti vb to hatch RPN
Homeric Greek: πόρταξ/πόρ(τ)ις n calf, heifer RPN
Armenian: ortʰ n calf, heifer RPN
Sanskrit: pṛthuka-ḥ n young animal RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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