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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2e. per-   'to dare, risk, try; peril, danger'

Semantic Fields: to Dare; Peril, Danger


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fǣr/fēr n.masc fear ASD
Middle English: experience n experience W7
  experiment n experiment W7
  expert adj/n expert W7
  fer n fear W7
  parlous adj parlous W7
  peril n peril W7
  perilous adj perilous W7
  pirate n pirate W7
English: empiric n charlatan AHD/W7
  experience n perception/apprehension of event/reality AHD/W7
  experiment n trial, test AHD/W7
  expert adj experienced, knowledgeable AHD/W7
  expert n authority, one who has acquired skill/knowledge in subject AHD/W7
  fear n emotion due to peril/danger AHD/W7
  parlous adj perilous: hazardous, fraught with risk/danger AHD/W7
  peril n danger, exposure to risk of injury/destruction/being lost AHD/W7
  pirate n corsair, buccaneer, one who commits/practices piracy AHD/W7
Dutch: gevaar n.neut fear, danger ASD
Old Saxon: fār n.masc fear, ambush ASD
Low German: vare n.fem fear, danger ASD
Old High German: fāra n.fem fear, peril, ambush ASD
Middle High German: vār(e) n.masc fear, snares ASD
German: Fahr/Gefahr n.fem fear, peril ASD
  Pirat n.masc pirate LRC
Old Norse: fár n.neut fear, malice, mischief LRC
Icelandic: fār n.neut fear, harm, plague ASD
Danish: fare n.masc/fem fear, danger ASD
Swedish: fara n.fem fear, peril ASD
Latin: empiricus adj empiric W7
  experiens, experientis adj/vb.ptc trying W7
  experientia n.fem experience, act of trying W7
  experimentum n.neut experiment W7
  experior, experīrī vb.dep to test, try out, experience W7
  expertus adj/vb.ptc expert W7
  imperitus, imperita, imperitum adj inexperienced LRC
  periculum, periculi n.neut danger LRC
  -periri vb.sfx to experience W7
  pirata n.masc pirate W7
Old French: peril n.masc peril, danger W7
Middle French: expérience n.fem experience, act of trying W7
  expert adj expert W7
  pirate n.masc pirate W7
French: expert adj expert W7
  expert n.masc expert W7
Homeric Greek: πειρά(ζ)ω vb to test, attempt, make trial of LRC
Greek: ἐκπειράομαι vb to tempt LRC
  empeiria n.fem experience W7
  emperirikos adj relying on experience alone W7
  πειρασμός n.masc temptation LRC
  peiratēs n.masc pirate W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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