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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 2. perg-   'fear; to frighten'

Semantic Field: Fear, Fright


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: forht adj fearful, afraid, timid RPN/ASD
  forhtian/forhtig(e)an/forhtegean vb.wk to fear, be afraid RPN/ASD
  fyrhtan vb to frighten, tremble RPN/ASD
  fyrhto/fyrhtu n fright, fear RPN/ASD
Middle English: friʒt/fryʒt n fright CDC
English: fright n fear, alarm LRC
  frighten vb to terrify, make/become afraid W7
Old Frisian: fruchta n fright RPN
Old Dutch: vorght/vrocht n fright CDC
  vurcht/vrucht n fright ASD
Old Saxon: for(a)ht/furht adj timid, fearful ASD
  for(a)hta n fright CDC
Middle Low German: vorchte/vrochte/vruchte n fright CDC
Low German: frucht n fright CDC
Old High German: for(a)hta/forohta n.fem fright RPN/CDC
  forht adj timid, fearful ASD
  furhten vb to fear RPN
Middle High German: vorht(e) n.fem fright CDC/ASD
German: Furcht n.fem fright CDC/ASD
  fürchten vb to fear LRC
Danish: frygt n.masc/fem fright CDC/ASD
Swedish: fruktan n.fem fright CDC/ASD
Gothic: faurhtei n.fem fright RPN/ASD
  faurhtjan vb.wk.I to fear, be afraid LRC
  faurhts adj timid, afraid, fearful RPN
Tocharian B: pärsk- vb to fear, be afraid RPN
  prāsk- vb to fear, be afraid RPN
  proskiye n fear RPN
  prosko n fear RPN
Tocharian A: pärsk- vb to fear, be afraid RPN
  prask- vb to fear, be afraid RPN
  praski n fear RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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