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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support, but fonts for only the Unicode 2.0 character set (including combining diacritics). Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: perku-s   'oak'

Semantic Fields: Oak; Tree, Oak


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fe(o)rh/feorg/fiorh/fyorh n.str.masc/neut life, soul, spirit ASD
  feorh-hūs n.neut body, lit. life-house LRC
  firgen/fyrgen n.neut mountain, mountain-woodland ASD
  fyrh n fir W7
Middle English: cork n cork, bark W7
  fir n fir W7
English: cork n lightweight elastic outer tree bark AHD
  fir n symmetrical tree of pine family AHD/W7
  Firienfeld prop.n Dunharrow meadow in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Firienwood prop.n White Mountains forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Halifirien prop.n beacon hill in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  quercetin n yellow crystalline pigment AHD/W7
  quercitron n oak AHD/W7
Dutch: kurk n cork AHD
Old Saxon: fer(a)h n.neut life, soul ASD
Low German: korck n cork AHD
Old High German: fërah/ferh n.neut life, spirit ASD
  forha n fir W7
  kien-foraha n pine KDW
Middle High German: vërch n.neut life ASD
German: Ferch n.neut life, blood ASD
  Föhre n.fem Scots pine LRC
  Kiefer n.fem pine (tree) TLL
Old Norse: firar men, people LRC
Icelandic: fjör n.neut life ASD
  Fjörgyn prop.n.fem Mother-earth ASD
Danish: fyr n fir, pine TLL
Gothic: faírguni n.str.neut mountain LRC
  fairhwus n world ASD
Latin: quercetum n.neut oak forest W7
  quercus n.fem oak (tree) W7
New Latin: Quercus n.masc oak (genus) W7
Spanish: corcho n.masc cork LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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