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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 3. pes-, pesos   'penis'

Semantic Field: Penis


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: fæsl n.neut offspring, progeny LRC
Middle English: pensel n pencil W7
English: pencil n artist's brush AHD/W7
  penicillium n blue mold fungus AHD/W7
  penis n male organ of copulation AHD/W7
Old Dutch: fasel/vasel n fetus (in utero) ASD
Low German: fasel n offspring, progeny ASD
Old High German: fasal n.fem brood, offspring, progeny ASD
  faselt n penis RPN
Middle High German: vasel n.neut brood, offspring, progeny ASD
German: fasel n.masc brood, offspring, progeny ASD
Icelandic: fösull n.masc brood ASD
Latin: penicillus n.masc.dim little tail W7
  pēnis n.masc tail; penis RPN
Vulgar Latin: penicellus n.masc.dim little tail W7
New Latin: penicillium n.neut (genus of) fungus W7
Middle French: pincel n.masc little tail, painting brush W7
Greek: πέος n.neut penis RPN
  πόσθη n.fem penis RPN
Sanskrit: pásas- n penis RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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